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General Overview

Traffic/Signaling

Traffic/Signaling
• The network can carry two types of information: • Traffic: it concerns all the «user to user» information. It can be voice as well as data. • Signaling: the network also requires to carry information for its own working. Their purposes are numerous: traffic data routing, maintenance, security. These data are usually not visible from user‟s point of view.

CCS allows the voice component to be built separately which allows resources to be saved. • CCS (Common Channel Signaling): two separate paths are used for information transfer (one for traffic. another for all-related signaling information). even if the call can‟t be completed. Thus. • GSM works with CCS(#7) .Traffic/Signaling • PTS (Per-Trunk Signaling): signaling and voice component are transmitted on the same facility. PTS requires the voice component to be completely built. For instance. no voice facilities would be assigned to the call if the dialed number is busy.

Network Overview .

. fax machine etc. This is the part which provides for interconnection between the GSM network and the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). • The Network Switching System This consists of the Mobile services Switching Centre (MSC) and its associated system-control databases and processors together with the required interfaces. • The Base Station System (BSS) This is the part of the network which provides the radio interconnection from the MS to the land-based switching equipment. • The Operations and Maintenance System This enables the network provider to configure and maintain the network from a central location.Network Overview • The principle component groups of a GSM network are: • The Mobile Station (MS) This consists of the mobile telephone. This is the part of the network that the subscriber will see.

.IMSI The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the primary identification of the subscriber within the GSM network and is permanently assigned to him.

MSISDN is stored in HLR. It is used by the land networks to route calls toward an appropriate GSM network.MSISDN • The Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) is the number that the calling party dials in order to reach the GSM subscriber. .

.IMEI • Stored inside the Mobile Equipment. • Used to replace IMSI or TMSI when both are unavailable (example: Emergency calls without SIM-Card) or when required by the network (for maintenance). – SNR = 6 digits for the serial number of the device. – FAC = 2 digits for identification of the factory. • Can be used for EIR database updating (when existing): – TAC = 6 digits describing the type of equipment.

MS Classmark .

– short message capability. power control.MS Classmark • The type of MS must be given to the NSS at the beginning of each new connection. E-GSM (2 x 35 MHz). GSM 1800. GSM 1900. • This classmark is sent when the system establishes the radio link between MS and the Base Transceivers Stations. • The power class information is the maximum power the MS is able to transmit and is used by the network for several procedures: selection. The subscriber may insert this SIM-Card into another Mobile Equipment (ME). because this type can change between calls. RF power capability. • The classmark of each MS can contain up to five parameters: – – – – revision level. . Encryption algorithm: A5/1. A5/2. handover. Frequency capability: P-GSM (2 x 25 MHz). RGSM (2 x 4MHz).

Mobile Services .

Teleservices • • • • • • Telephony Emergency Call SMS FAX User‟s data call features Voice Messaging .

Supplementary Services • • • • • • • Line Identification Call Forwarding Call Diverting Call Waiting Conference Call Call Barring Advice of charge .

RF Basics .

Frequency Spectrum GSM 900 and GSM 1800 Lies in this band .

Cabling. • In a „low power‟ system every dB you can save is important!! • Remember the “3 dB Rule”. . connectors.3dB Rule • In all wireless communication systems there are several factors that contribute to the loss of signal strength. “For every 3 dB gain/loss you will either double your power (gain) or lose half your power (loss)”. lightning arrestors can all impact the performance of your system if not installed properly.

cables. jumpers.3dB Rule -3 dB = 1/2 power -6 dB = 1/4 power +3 dB = 2x power +6 dB = 4x power • Sources of loss in a wireless system: free space. obstructions . connectors.

arc welders. power lines. such as automobile ignition systems. whether manmade or natural. fluorescent lights. • Manmade noise is generated almost anywhere that there is electrical activity.Sources of Noises • Noise consists of all undesired radio signals. • Noise makes the reception of useful information difficult. motors. and so on. .

this propagation occurs entirely within the atmosphere near the Earth .Propagation of Wave • The propagation of the radio waves through the atmosphere is how the information travels from one point to another in a wireless data network. • For the types of networks of interest here.

Environmental Factors • • • • • • Free Space Loss Absorption Reflection Refraction Diffraction Scattering .

Free Space Loss • The free space loss is the widening out of the signal as it moves away from the antenna • The effect is a loss of signal strength at the receiving end of the link. because the short wavelengths of the higher frequencies cannot bend around objects as can longer wavelengths . • Higher frequency signals loose more than lower frequency signals.

Free Space Loss • Free Space Loss = C + (20 * Log(D)) + (20 * Log(F)) • For both measuring systems – D = Distance in Kilometers/Miles – F = Frequency in Megahertz • For kilometers • C = 32.6 .4 • For miles • C = 36.

. • Reflection appears as multipath. some signals must reflected in another direction. • If the material does not absorb all of the signal.Reflection • Reflection is a change in direction of the signal from reflecting material.

• In atmospheric refraction when the wave front reaches a area of less dense air it starts to travel faster than the part of the wave front still in the more dense air. but mostly passes through the object. .Refraction • Refraction is the bending of a wave as it passes through an object. • It is not reflected off.

such as the edge of a building or a hill. but a shadowed area appears behind the object . • The signal moves around the object and back to the other side.Diffraction • Diffraction occurs when a RF wave is obstructed by a surface that has sharp edges or a rough surface.

Diffraction .

Scattering and Absorption .

Line of Sight • Attaining good Line of Sight (LOS) between the sending and receiving antenna is essential in both Point to Point and Point to Multipoint installations • Generally there are two types of LOS that are used discussed during installations: – Optical LOS .is related to the ability to see one site from the other – Radio LOS – related to the ability of the receiver to „see‟ the transmitted signal .

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Cellular Concept .

• Due to this.Overview • A cellular telephone system links mobile station (MS) subscribers into the public telephone system or to another cellular system‟s MS subscriber. This removes the necessity for the fixed wiring used in a traditional telephone installation. the MS subscriber is able to move around and become fully mobile. perhaps travelling in a vehicle or on foot. . • Information sent between the MS subscriber and the cellular network uses radio communication.

Each BSS can provide one or more cells. dependent on the manufacturers equipment. . • The cells are normally drawn as hexagonal.Cell • Mobile Stations within the cellular network are located in “cells”. this is as a result of the influence of the surrounding terrain. these cells are provided by the BSSs. but in practice they are irregularly shaped. or of design by the network planners.

lakes. Large areas which need to be covered with the minimum number of cell sites. Areas with few subscribers. . • Large Cells – – – – – Generally large cells are employed in: Remote areas. buildings etc). and the geographic layout of the area (hills.Cell Size • The number of cells in any geographic area is determined by the number of MS subscribers who will be operating in that area. Coastal regions.

• Pico Cells .Cell Size • Small Cells – Urban areas. – High number of MSs. – Low transmission power required.

• In C/I. I>9dB – C/I > 9dB Frequency Hopping – C/I>12dB Without Frequency Hopping .Co-Channel Interference • This occurs when RF carriers of the same frequency are transmitting in close proximity to each other. the transmission from one RF carrier interferes with the other RF carrier.

A > -9dB .Adjacent Channel Interference • This occurs when an RF source of a nearby frequency interferes with the RF carrier. • In C/A.

1200 . • Each cell uses special directional antennas to ensure that the radio propagation from one cell is concentrated in a particular direction. • Cell can be sectorized in 600. we have to increase the number of cells to meet the demand. • To gain a increase in capacity within the geographic area we can employ a technique called “sectorization”. That is each site has a single cell and that cell has a single transmit antenna which radiates the radio waves to 360 degrees. • The problem with employing Omni-directional cells is that as the number of MSs increases in the same geographical region.Sectorization • The cells we have looked at up to now are called omnidirectional cells.

Sectorization .

.2*(n-512) (512 ≤=n ≤=885) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 95. • GSM 1800: Fl(n) = 1710.Frequency Spectrum • Carrier frequency = ARFCN = Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number • P-GSM 900: Fl(n) = 890 + 0.2 + 0.2*n (1 ≤=n ≤=124) Fu(n) = Fl(n) + 45.

GSM ARCHITECTURE • From “CP02” notes .

but can also cause the BTS and MS to adjust their power output to take account of that distance also.Power Control • This is a feature of the GSM air interface which allows the network provider to not only compensate for the distance from MS to BTS as regards timing. and helps to reduce co-channel and adjacent channel interference. • The closer the MS is to the BTS. • Initial power setting for the MS is set by the information provided on the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) for a particular cell. the less the power it and the BTS will be required to transmit. • This feature saves radio battery power at the MS. .

BTS instruct the MS how much the uplink power is used on downlink. . • Measurement reports are sent from MS to BTS.Power Control • On SACCH.

• Without “comfort” noise the total silence between the speech would be considered to be disturbing by the listener.Voice Activity Detection (VAD) • VAD is a mechanism whereby the source transmitter equipment identifies the presence or absence of speech. . • VAD implementation is effected in speech mode by encoding the speech pattern silences at a rate of 500 bit/s rather than the full 13 kbit/s. which is regenerated in the receiver. known as “comfort” noise. • This results in a data transmission rate for background noise.

• If the MS does not transmit during „silences‟ there is a reduction in the overall power output requirement.Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) • DTX increases the efficiency of the system through a decrease in the possible radio transmission interference level. . • During this time. of the possible 104 frames. only the 4 SACCH frames and 8 Silence Discriptor (SID) frames are transmitted. • DTX is implemented over a SACCH multiframe (480 ms).

Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) .

. • This allows the MS to „go to sleep‟ and listen-in only when necessary. with the effective saving in power usage. after initially locking on to a BCCH. determine when the next relevant information is to be transmitted.Discontinuous Reception (DRX) • DRX allows the MS to effectively “switch off” during times when reception is deemed unnecessary. • By monitoring the BCCH. FCCH and the SCH the MS is aware of the Frame Number and repetition format for Frame Synchronization. • It can therefore.

• (REMAINING FROM CP02) .Discontinuous Reception (DRX) • DRX may only be used when a MS is not in a call.

the signals combine either constructively or destructively. for example. • Received signals will therefore arrive at different times and not be in phase with each other. . • This is caused by the signal being reflected from objects. through layers of air of varying temperatures and humidity.Multipath Fading • Multipath Fading results from a signal travelling from a transmitter to a receiver by a number of routes. the overall effect being to add together or to cancel each other out. they will have experienced time dispersion. or being influenced by atmospheric effects as it passes. • On arrival at the receiver.

Multipath Fading
• When the receive antenna is moving, the exact phase of each path changes and consequently the combined signal-strength is also continually changing.

Time Dispersion
• Time dispersion may cause problems in environments with, e.g. mountains, lakes with steep or densely built shores, hilly cities, and high metal–covered buildings. • The interferer, R, is a time delayed reflection of the wanted carrier. According to GSM specifications, the signal strength ratio C/R must be larger than 9 dB (compared to the C/I–criterion). • However, if the time delay is smaller than 15 ms (i.e., 4 bits or approximately 4.4 km), the equalizer can solve the problem. • If there are quality problems, time dispersion measurements must be taken to verify that time dispersion is actually causing the poor quality.