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Note to the Instructor

:

The following PowerPoint slides include the core concepts and key terms of Chapter 2 in Psychology in Action (8e). Before presentations, you can delete these instructor information slides by simply pressing “delete” on your keyboard. If you prefer a different background color or design, click on the upper right corner under “design.” To further personalize and enrich your PowerPoint slides, check the Psychology in Action Instructor Resource site for additional video clips, figures, tables, key terms, etc.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Note to the Instructor (Continued):

Each topic listed on the Lecture Outline slide (#4) has been “linked” for your convenience. When in the “presentation mode,” simply click on the topic and you will link directly to the slide(s) of interest. Note that the last slide of each topic includes a “home” icon that will return you to the original Lecture Outline slide. This feature enables you to present chapter topics in any order. Ease of navigation and flexibility in presentation are key elements of a PowerPoint in Action.

Enjoy!
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Psychology in Action (8e)
by

Karen Huffman
PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Biological Foundations
Karen Huffman, Palomar College
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Lecture Overview

Neural Bases of Behavior Nervous System Organization A Tour Through the Brain Our Genetic Inheritance

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology

Neuroscience: interdisciplinary field studying how biological processes relate to behavioral and mental processes

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology

The nervous system consists of neurons (cells responsible for receiving and transmitting electrochemical information).

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology: The Structure of a Neuron

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication

Within a neuron, communication occurs through an action potential (neural impulse that carries information along the axon of a neuron).

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)

Between neurons, communication occurs through transmission of neural information across a synapse by neurotransmitters (chemicals released by neurons that alter activity in other neurons).
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)

Receiving neurons receive multiple messages from other neurons, and these messages determine if an action potential occurs or not.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Neural Communication (Continued)

Note how the axon terminals of sending neurons almost completely cover the cell body of the receiving neuron.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Applying Psychology to Everyday Life

• • • • • •

Major Neurotransmitters:
Serotonin Acetylcholine (ACh) Dopamine (DA) Norepinephrine (NE) Epinephrine (adrenaline) GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid) Endorphins
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology: Receptor Sites

 

normal message
blocked message (wrong shape) agonistic drugs mimic shape and enhance neurotransmitter

antagonistic drugs fill the site and block neurotransmitter
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Neural Bases of Psychology: How Hormones Affect Us

Endocrine System: collection of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Nervous System Organization

Central Nervous System (CNS): includes the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): includes all nerves and neurons connecting CNS to the rest of the body (subdivided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Nervous System Organization

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS)
 

Brain Spinal Cord (transmits information into and out of the brain )

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Nervous System Organization: Central Nervous System (CNS)

The spinal cord is also responsible for involuntary, automatic behaviors called reflexes.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Nervous System Organization: Subdivisions of the Peripheral Nervous System

Somatic Nervous System (SNS): connects to sensory receptors and controls skeletal muscles. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): controls involuntary bodily functions ANS is subdivided into: Sympathetic Nervous System (arouses) and the Parasympathetic Nervous System (calms)
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Nervous System Organization:
 Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous Systems

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through the Brain

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain: Hindbrain

Three key structures of the hindbrain:  Medulla: life survival functions  Pons: respiration, movement, waking, sleeping, and dreaming  Cerebellum: coordination of fine muscular movements, balance, and some aspects of perception and cognition
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)

Midbrain: collection of brain structures in the middle of the brain that coordinates movement patterns, sleep, and arousal

(Reticular formation: runs through the hindbrain, midbrain, and brainstem and screens incoming information and controls arousal
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)

Forebrain: collection of upper-level brain structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and limbic system  Thalamus: relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex  Hypothalamus: responsible for emotions, drives, and regulating the body’s internal environment
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain (Continued)

Limbic System: interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, and memory

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain: Cerebral Cortex

Cerebral Cortex: thin
surface layer on the left and right cerebral hemispheres regulating most complex behavior, including sensations, motor control, and higher mental processes
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex

The frontal Lobesreceive and coordinate messages from other lobes and are responsible for motor control, speech production, and higher functions, such as thinking, personality, emotion, and memory.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through the Brain: The Importance of the Frontal Lobes

Phineas Gage’s mining accident sent a 13pound tamping iron through his frontal lobes. How did this affect his short- and long-term behavior and mental processes?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain: Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex (Cont.)

Parietal Lobes: located at the top of the brain
directly behind the frontal lobes and responsible for interpreting bodily sensations Temporal Lobes: located on each side of the brain above the ears and responsible for audition, language comprehension, memory, and some emotional control Occipital Lobes: located at the back of the brain responsible for vision and visual perception
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain: The Motor Cortex and Somatosensory Cortex

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain: Motor and Somatosensory Cortex (Cont.)

Why are the hands and face on this drawing so large? What do they represent?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain Research

Severing the

corpus callosum
provides data regarding the functions of the brain’s two hemispheres.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain: Split-Brain Research (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

A Tour Through The Brain: Lateralization

The left and right hemispheres of the brain each specialize in particular operations.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Our Genetic Inheritance

To answer questions about the influence of nature versus nurture, psychologists use behavioral genetics research.

Behavioral Genetics: studies the relative
effects of nature (heredity, genes, and chromosomes) and nurture (environment) on behavior and mental processes.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Our Genetic Inheritance: Genes & DNA

The nucleus of every cell in our body contains genes, which carry the code for hereditary transmission. These genes are arranged along chromosomes (strands of paired DNA).

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Our Genetic Inheritance: Genes & DNA

Tongue-curling is one of the only traits that depends on a specific dominant gene.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Our Genetic Inheritance: Twin Research

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Our Genetic Inheritance

Evolutionary Psychology: studies how natural selection and adaptation help explain behavior and mental processes

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Our Genetic Inheritance

Sex differences in lateralization. Note how activation is confined to only one hemisphere in the male brain on the left, and how it occurs on both hemispheres in the female brain on the right.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Our Genetic Inheritance: Better Living Through Neuroscience

Neuroplasticity: brain’s lifelong ability to reorganize and change its structure and function Neurogenesis: the division and differentiation of non-neuronal cells to produce neurons Stem cells: Precursor (immature) cells that give birth to new specialized cells
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

Psychology in Action (8e)
by

Karen Huffman
PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

End of Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Biological Foundations
Karen Huffman, Palomar College
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)