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Industrial-Organizational Psychology Learning Module

Motivation and Performance


Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP

Lesson Objectives
At the end of this lecture, you should:

Know the definition and components of motivation Understand reinforcement and goal setting Understand how these concepts are applied to motivate employees

Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP

Motivation Defined

Any force that energizes and directs people to perform their jobs Intent of behavior is to satisfy needs and achieve goals
needs:

physiological (hunger) or social (achievement) incentives: situational factors that direct behavior to achieve goals that satisfy needs reinforcers: consequences of behavior that affect probability of repeating behavior
Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP

Reinforcement Theory

When a need exists, we are motivated to work hard to achieve goal, to satisfy needs.
Motivation to perform

Performance (Hard work)

Reinforcement (Needs satisfied)

Incentive (Paycheck)
Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP

Reinforcement Theory (cont.)

Employees will repeat responses that are positively reinforced Individual must operate on environment to earn the reward Effects will depend on schedules of reinforcement
monthly

paycheck daily bonuses working piece-rate on assembly line


Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP

Case #1 Discussion

What was being used as motivation in this case? What effects on performance were seen? How do these issues illustrate:
Needs Incentives Reinforcers

How are these concepts used in your jobs? Would this work for everyone?
Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP

Goal-Setting Theory

We rationally set task-related goals We decide on the effort and time to be invested to achieve goals Goals must be:
specific

(not do your best) challenging but attainable accepted

Feedback on performance is critical


Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP

Case #2 Discussion

What are the pros and cons of establishing goals at work or school? Would setting goals before you start influence your effort invested?
In

your job? In school?


What kind of goals would you set? How difficult should goals be?
Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP

How I/O psychologists help employers motivate workers

Designing Management-By-Objectives (MBO) programs


managers

and employees set performance goals together

Establishing organizational behavior modification programs


using

reinforcement concepts in the workplace promotions, etc.

Providing advice on reward systems


compensation,
Prepared by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology - SIOP