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ISLAMIC FAITH AND PRACTICE

THRS 315 SECTION 1 Zeynep A. Kuru

Book

Additional book chapters and articles will be in Copley Librarys E-Reserve. If you would like to have a copy of English translation of Quran, 1- Muhammad Asads The Message of The Quran 2- Yusuf Alis The Meaning of Quran

Pre-Islamic Arabia and the Life of Prophet Muhammad

Pre-Islamic Arabia
What is jahiliya? Muslims call the life of Arabs in Hejaz and surrounding areas before Islam as jahiliya. It literally means the era of ignorance

Tribal system as the basis of social relations

Tribal loyalty Retaliation Personal Honor Genealogy Female infanticide

Language and Culture

Arabic as a Semitic language among others The other Semitic languages are Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Akkadian and Assyrian Poetry and its importance in jahiliya

Religion in Pre-Islamic Arabia

Many deities were recognized by different tribes Mecca as a center of pilgrimage Allah as a concept in jahiliya Monotheistic religions

Early Life of Prophet Muhammad


He was born in 570 C.E. He was from Quraysh tribe and of the clan of Banu Hashim. He grew up as an orphan. He got married to Khadija.

Hira Cave610, Ramadan, 27th Night First revelation

Recite in the name of your Lord who has created, Created human being out of a germ-cell. Recite for your lord is the Most Generous One Who has taught by the pen, taught human being what he did not know.

Meccan Life, (610-622)


Preaching
Strict Monotheism (Tawhid) Social justice and egalitarianism

Persecution
Torture Migration to Abyssinia Boycott Death of Khadija and his uncle (year of sorrow)

Migration to Medina and the Early Muslim Community

Migration from Mecca to MedinaHijra (622)

Starting point for Hijri Muslim Calendar Consolidation of religo-political authority Creating of the Islamic community (umma)

The Constitution of Medina


All parties were to cooperate together for their mutual defense Muhammad was acknowledged as their chief Jews were considered as a religious community sharing the privileges as well as duties of protecting Medina.

Struggle with Mecca

Two Battles Badr (624) Uhud (625) Siege of Medina (The Battle of Trench)(627) Attempt for Pilgrimage (628) Peace Treaty (Hudaybiya)

The Life in Medina


The changing of direction of prayer-salat- from Jerusalem to Mecca The institution of friendship between immigrants and people of Medina (ansar-helpers and muhajirunemigrants) The transformation of tribal system

After Hudaybiya
630-The Conquest of Mecca Islamization of Mecca and unification of umma 632-The Farewell Pilgrimage and Farewell Sermon

The tomb of Prophet Muhammad

Death of Prophet
Prophet Muhammad as an exemplar of Muslim life and piety a human prophet a reformist