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Difference between enthalpy and entropy

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Enthalpy is defined as "a quantity associated with a thermodynamic system, expressed as the internal energy of a system plus the product of the pressure and volume of the system, having the property that during an isobaric process, the change in the quantity is equal to the heat transferred during the process.

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure remains constant. This is usually obtained by allowed the volume to expand or contract in such a way to neutralize any pressure changes that would be caused by heat transfer.In an isobaric process, there are typically internal energy changes, work is done by the system, and heat is transferred, so none of the quantities in the first law of thermodynamicsreadily reduce to zero. However, the work at a constant pressure can be fairly easily calculated with the equation: W = p * delta-V

Entropy on the other hand is defined in Thermodynamics (on a Macroscopic Scale) as a measure of the energy that is not available for work during a thermodynamic process. A closed system evolves toward a state of maximum entropy.

Entropy in statistical mechanics is however defined as "a measure of the randomness of the microscopic constituents of a thermodynamic system. Symbol: S. Entropy in data transmission and information theory is a measure of the loss of information in a transmitted signal or message. Entropy in cosmology means a hypothetical tendency for the universe to attain a state of maximum homogeneity in which all matter is at a uniform temperature (Heat Death).

The warmer air is, the more water vapor it can "hold." Dew point is a measure of how much water vapor is actually in the air. Relative humidity is a measure of the amount of water in the air compared with the amount of water the air can hold at the temperature it happens to be when you measure it.

To see how this works, let's use the chart below.

Air temperature in degrees C

30 degrees 20 degrees 10 degrees

30 grams per cubic meter of air 17 grams per cubic meter of air 9 grams per cubic meter of air

These numbers, which apply to air at sea level pressure, are based on measurements over the years. They are basic physical facts.

Now, let's see how Dew Point and relative humidity work.

Imagine, that at 3 p.m. you measure the air's temperature at 300 C and you measure its humidity at 9 grams per cubic meter of air. What would happen if this air cooled to 100 C with no water vapor being added or taken away? As it cools to 100 C the air becomes saturated; that is, it can't hold any more water vapor than 9 grams per cubic meter. Cool the air even a tiny bit more and its water vapor will begin condensing to form clouds, fog or dew - depending on whether the air is high above the ground, just above the ground, or right at the ground. Back at 3 p.m., when we made the measurements, we could say that the air's dew point is 100 C That is, if this particular air were cooled to 100 C at ground level, its humidity would begin condensing to form dew.

At 3 p.m. the air has 9 grams of water vapor per cubic meter of air. We divide 9 by 30 and multiply by 100 to get a relative humidity of 30%. In other words, the air actually has 30% of the water vapor it could hold at its current temperature. Cool the air to 200 C. Now we divide 9, the vapor actually in the air, by 17, the vapor it could hold at its new temperature, and multiply by 100 to get a relative humidity of 53% (rounded off). Finally, when the air cools to 100 C, we divide 9 by 9 and multiply by 100 to get a relative humidity of 100% - the air now has all the vapor it can hold at its new temperature.

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