Review on Z-Transforms

How to do Z-Transforms
How to do inverse Z-Transforms
How to infer properties of a signal from
its Z-transform
Transfer Functions
How to obtain Transfer Functions
How to infer properties of a system
from its Transfer Function
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
raw readings from
a noisy temperature
sensor
- Input Signal
smooth temperature
values after filtering
- Output Signal
Filter
Y[n]=1/2x[n]+1/2y[n-1]
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0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Z-Transform of a Signal not a Filter
X[n]
Z
-1

x(0)
x(1)
x(2)
x(3)
x(4)

X(z)
Z
x(0) · z
0

+x(1) · z
-1

+x(2) · z
-2

+x(3) · z
-3

+x(4) · z
-4



X(Z)=Σ x(k) . Z
-k
k=0
2
-1
3
7
-5

2· z
0

-1 · z
-1

3 · z
-2

7 · z
-3

-5· z
-4


Z Transform of Unit Impulse Signal o(z)
o(k) o(z)
Z
Z
-1

o(0) = 1
o(1) = 0
o(2) = 0
o(3) = 0
o(4) = 0

1 · z
0

+0 · z
-1

+0 · z
-2

+0 · z
-3

+0 · z
-4


-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
0.5
1
o(z)=1
Z-Transform of Unit Step Signal
u
step
(k) U
step
(z)
Z
Z
-1

u(0) = 1
u(1) = 1
u(2) = 1
u(3) = 1
u(4) = 1

1 · z
0

+1 · z
-1

+1 · z
-2

+1 · z
-3

+1 · z
-4


... z z z 1 (z) U
3 2 1
st ep
+ + + + =
÷ ÷ ÷
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
0.5
1
Unit Step Signal - continued
, n · ÷
1, | a | <
a 1
a 1
a 1
) a ... a a a)(1 (1
a ... a a 1
1 n
n 2
n 2
÷
÷
=
÷
+ + + + ÷
= + + + +
÷
A little bit more math …
assuming
a 1
1
a 1
a 1
a 1
) a ... a a a)(1 (1
... a a 1
1 n
n 2
2
÷
=
÷
÷
=
÷
+ + + + ÷
= + + +
÷
· ÷
· ÷
n
n
lim
lim
1 -
3 2 1
st ep
z - 1
1
... z z z 1 (z) U = + + + + =
÷ ÷ ÷
Z-Transform of Exponential Signal
u
exp
(k) U
exp
(z)
Z
Z
-1

u(0) = 1
u(1) = a
u(2) = a
2

u(3) = a
3

u(4) = a
4


1 · z
0

+a · z
-1

+a
2
· z
-2

+a
3
· z
-3

+a
4
· z
-4


1 -
3 3 2 2 1
exp
az - 1
1
... z a z a az 1 (z) U
=
+ + + + =
÷ ÷ ÷
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
a=1.2
Remember
this!
This result is from last slide where a->az
-1

Important Theorem : Convolution in time doamin is the same
as simple multiplication in z- domain
u(k)
*
(convolution)
v(k)
=
y(k)
U(z) V(z) Y(z)
=
·
(multiplication)
Z
Z
-1

Z
Z
-1

Z
Z
-1

Time Domain
Z Domain
Z-Transform/Inverse Z-Transform
Convolution in time is parallel to multiply in Z domain
y
impuse
(k)=0.3
k-1

u

(k)=0.7
k
y

(k)?
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0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
*
(convolution)
1
0.7z 1
1
÷
÷
Z
=
·
(multiplication)
=
) 0.7z )(1 0.3z (1
z
1 1
1
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
0 5 10 15
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Z
-1

1
-1
0.3z 1
z
÷
÷
Z
Transfer
Function
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0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Delay the Unit Step Signal
-1 0 1 2 3 4
0
0.5
1
u
step
(k)
o(k-1)
u(k-1)
*
(convolution)
=
1
z 1
1
÷
÷
Z
Transfer
Function
·
(multiplication)
Z
z
-1

=
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
0.5
1
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
0.5
1
1
-1
z 1
z
÷
÷
Z
o(k-1) u

(k) y

(k)
convolution
Delayed Unit Step Signal – Cont’d
u(k-1) U
dstep
(z)
Z
Z
-1

u(0) = 0
u(1) = 1
u(2) = 1
u(3) = 1
u(4) = 1

0 · z
0

+1 · z
-1

+1 · z
-2

+1 · z
-3

+1 · z
-4


1 z
1
z - 1
z
... z z z (z) U
1 -
1 -
3 2 1
dst ep
÷
= =
+ + + =
÷ ÷ ÷
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
0.5
1
Remember
this!
Transfer Function
 Transfer function provides a much more intuitive way to
understand the input-output relationship, or system
characteristics of an LTI system
 Stability
 Accuracy
 Settling time
 Overshoot
 …

properties of Z-Transform
 Linearity means scaling and superposition
Time Domain
Z-Transform
y(k)=au(k)
y(k)=u(k)+v(k)
Y(z)=aU(z)
Y(z)=U(z)+V(z)
Scaling
Superposition
sin? cos?
Use Exponential to get Trigonometric function’s
z transform
u u
u
isin cos e
i
+ =
u u u u
u
isin cos ) isin( ) cos( e ÷ = ÷ + ÷ =
÷
1 -
3 3 2 2 1
exp
az - 1
1
... z a z a az 1 (z) U
=
+ + + + =
÷ ÷ ÷
?
Euler Formula:
Z[cos(kθ)]?
Z[sin(kθ)]?
2
e e
cos
i i u u
u
÷
+
=
2i
e e
sin
i i u u
u
÷
÷
=
Z-Transform of sin/cos
u ik
e u(k)=
1 - i
z e - 1
1
U(z)
·
=
u
2
e e
) cos(k u(k)
ik ik u u
u
÷
+
= =
Time Domain
Z-Transform
2i
e e
) sin(k u(k)
ik ik u u
u
÷
÷
= =
u -ik
e u(k)=
1 - i -
z e - 1
1
U(z)
·
=
u
2 1
1
2 1 2 1
1
1 1 1 1
1 i 1 - i
z z 2cos 1
z cos 1
) z (sin ) z cos (1
z cos 1
)/2
z isin z cos 1
1
z isin z cos 1
1
(
)/2
z e 1
1
z e - 1
1
( U(z)
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+ · ÷
· ÷
=
· + · ÷
· ÷
=
· + · ÷
+
· ÷ · ÷
=
· ÷
+
·
=
u
u
u u
u
u u u u
u u
2 1 -
-1
z z 2cos - 1
z sin
U(z)
÷
+ ·
·
=
u
u
Exponentially Modulated sin/cos
2
) (ae ) (ae
) cos(k a (k) u
k i k i
k
expcos
u u
u
÷
+
= =
2i
) (ae ) (ae
) sin(k a (k) u
k i k i
k
expsin
u u
u
÷
÷
= =
2 2 1 -
-1
z a z cos 2a - 1
z sin a
U(z)
÷
+ · ·
· ·
=
u
u
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
u(k)=cos(k*pi/6)*0.9
k
2 2 1 -
-1
z a z cos 2a - 1
z sin a
U(z)
÷
+ · ·
· ·
=
u
u
A damped oscillating signal – a typical output of a second order system