\

= =
P
P
V V
Charles Law
AS TEMPERATURE GOES UP, VOLUME GOES
UP (DIRECT)
CHARLES LAW SAYS:
VOLUMES 1 AND 2 MUST BE THE SAME
UNITS
TEMPERATURES 1 AND 2 MUST BE IN KELVIN
V
1
V
2
T
1
T
2
=
V o T
Example 2.2
From the question
V1 = 0.54 m3
T1 = 345 + 273 K = 618 K
V2 = 0.32 m3
A quantity of gas at 0.54 m
3
and 345
o
C undergoes a constant
pressure process that causes the volume of the gas to
decreases to 0.32 m
3
. Calculate the temperature of the gas at
the end of the process.
( )
K 366
m 0.54
m 0.32
K 618
x
3
3
1
2
1 2
2
2
1
1
=


.

\

=
=
=
V
V
T T
T
V
T
V
Universal Gases Law
The relation which gives the volume of a gas when both
temperature and the pressure are changed is stated as
equation below.
R
T
PV
= = constant
2
2 2
1
1 1
T
V P
T
V P
=
Characteristic equation of
state of a perfect gas
The constant, R, is called the gas constant. The unit of
R is Nm/kg K or J/kg K. Each perfect gas has a different
gas constant.
The characteristic equation is usually written
PV = RT
or for m kg, occupying V m
3
,
PV = mRT
From the definition of the kilogrammole, for m kg of a gas
we have,
m = nM
(where n is the number of moles).
Note: Since the standard of mass is the kg, kilogrammole will be written simply as
mole.
PV = nMRT or
or since MR = R
o
then,
nT
PV
MR =
T nR PV
nT
PV
R MR
o o
= = = or
R
R
M
o
=
Experiment has shown that the volume of 1 mole of any
perfect gas at 1 bar and 1
o
C is approximately 22.71 m
3
.
Therefore from equation
K J/mole 8314.4
273.15 x 1
22.71 x 10 x 1
5
0
= = =
nT
PV
R
Example 2.3
0.046 m
3
of gas are contained in a sealed cylinder at a pressure of 300
kN/m
2
and a temperature of 45
o
C. The gas is compressed until the
pressure reaches 1.27 MN/m
2
and the temperature is 83
o
C. If the gas is
assumed to be a perfect gas, determine:
a)the mass of gas (kg)
b)the final volume of gas (m
3
)
Given:
R = 0.29 kJ/kg K
Solution to Example 2.3
From the question
V
1
= 0.046 m
3
P
1
= 300 kN/m
2
T
1
= 45 + 273 K = 318 K
P
2
= 1.27 MN/m
2
= 1.27 x 10
3
kN/m
2
T
2
= 83 + 273 K = 356 K
R = 0.29 kJ/kg K
From equation
PV = mRT
kg 0.1496
318 x 0.29
0.046 x 300
1
1 1
= = =
RT
V P
m
( ) ( ) K 1346
300
10 x 1.27
318
3
1
2
1 2
2
2
1
1
=


.

\

=


.

\

=
=
P
P
T T
T
P
T
P
Tutorial 6
1) 0.04 kg of a certain perfect gas
occupies a volume of 0.0072 m
3
at a
pressure 6.76 bar and a temperature of
127
o
C. Calculate the molecular weight of
the gas (M). When the gas is allowed to
expand until the pressure is 2.12 bar the
final volume is 0.065 m
3
. Calculate the
final temperature.
2) A spherical balloon with a diameter of 6m
is filled with helium at 20C and 200kPa.
Determine the mole number and the mass
of the helium in the balloon.
R for helium : 2.0769 Nm/kg.K