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Lecture-20

Dr. Tahir Izhar
 Electric energy is one of the fundamental resources of the modern
industrial society
 Electrical power is available to the user instantly, at the correct voltage
and frequency, at exactly the amount needed.
 Yet the power system is subject to constant disturbances:
 Random load changes
 Faults by natural causes
 Equipment or operator failure
 The power system maintains its steady state mainly because of the
correct and quick remedial action taken by the protective relaying
equipment.
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 The response of the protection system must be
automatic, quick, and should cause a minimum
amount of disruption to the power system.
 To accomplish this is necessary:
 Examine all possible types of faults
 Analyze the required response and design the
protective equipment necessary
 Provide for a back-up protective function to prevent
failure of the protection itself
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 Overcurrent
 Short - circuits
 Not wanted contact between phases or between phase and ground
 Electrodynamic stress
 Thermal stress
 Overloads
 Thermal stress
 Ground faults
 Fire hazard
 Personal hazard
 Overvoltage
 Switching
 Temporary
 Lightning strikes
 Provoke isolation damage which could develop into short circuits
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 DETECT THE ELEMENT THAT STARTS TO OPERATE IN AN ABNORMAL MANNER

 REMOVE THIS ELEMENT FROM THE POWER SYSTEM AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE

 SIGNALING, LOGGING AND REPORTING

 SENSITIVITY - Ability to detect deviations of the parameters
inside the zone or element to protect
 SELECTIVITY - Ability to discern when it must actuate, wait or
block, to remove the least number of elements
 QUICKNESS - Minimum time in the process “Detect- Select-
Trip”
 RELIABILITY - Degree of certainty that an element will perform as
intended
• SECURITY - Certainty that the relay will not operate incorrectly for any
fault
• DEPENDABILITY - Certainty that the relay will operate correctly for all
the faults it is designed to operate
 ROBUSTNESS (STRENGTH) - Ability to withstand over years the
adverse conditions at which they are submitted
 BURDEN - minimum, so as not to oversize the instrument
transformers
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 Selectivity is defined in terms of
regions of a power system (zones of
protection) for which a given relay is
responsible.
 The relay will be considered secure if it
responds only to faults within its zone
of protection
 A zone boundary is usually defined by
a CT and a CB.
 The CT provides the ability to detect a
fault inside the zone
 The CBs provide the ability to isolate
the fault
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 All power system elements must
be encompassed by at least one
zone.
 The more important elements
must be included in at least two
zones
 Zones must overlap to prevent
any element from being
unprotected.
 The overlap must be finite but
small to minimize the likelihood of
a fault inside this region.
 Such a fault will cause both
protections to operate removing a
larger segment of the system from
service

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PROTECTION REACH
ZONE OF PROTECTION
PROTECTION REACH
ZONE OF PROTECTION
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50/51
DEFINED REACH
CLOSED ZONE
PROTECTION
UNDEFINED REACH
OPEN ZONE
PROTECTION
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 It is essential that provision be made to clear the fault by
some alternate protection system in case of the primary
protection could fail.
 These are referred to as back up protection systems
 On EHV is common to use duplicate primary protection systems
 Back up relaying may be installed locally, in the same substation, or
remotelly
 Remote back up are completely independent of the relays, CT,
breakers, etc.
 Remote back up may remove more sources that can be allowed
 Local back up use common elements an can thus fail to operate as
the primary protection
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REACH OF PROTECTION 21P
REACH OF PROTECTION 21B
21P
21B
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50/51
REACH OF PROTECTION 21
21
50/51
REACH OF PROTECTION 50/51 OF THE TRANSFORMER
REACH OF PROTECTION 50/51 OF BUS TIE BREAKER
A B
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REACH OF PROTECTION 21B
REACH OF PROTECTION 21A
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SUBSTATION A SUBSTATION B
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87
TELETRIP
TELETRIP
86
1
2
14
3
1
5
2.1
2.4
F.A.
A
D
2.2
P
2.3
2
4
1
 The function of transducers (usually CT and VT) is to provide current and
voltage signals to the relays, to detect deviations of the parameters watched
over.
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1
2.1
2.4
F.A.
A
D
2.2
P
2.3
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 Relays are the logic
elements which initiate
the tripping and closing
operations.
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1
2
4
 Circuit breakers
isolate the fault
by interrupting the
current.
3
1
5
2.1
2.4
F.A.
A
D
2.2
P
2.3
2
4
 Tripping power, as well
as power required by
the relays, is usually
provided by the station
battery because is safer
than the ac faulted
system.
 Relays can be divided into six functional categories:
 Protective relays. Detect defective lines, defective apparatus, or
other dangerous or intolerable conditions. These relays generally trip
one or more circuit breakers, but may also be used to sound an
alarm.
 Monitoring relays. Verify conditions on the power system or in the
protection system. These relays include fault detectors, alarm units,
channel-monitoring relays, synchronism verification, and network
phasing. Power system conditions that do not involve opening circuit
breakers during faults can be monitored by verification relays.
 Reclosing relays. Establish a closing sequence for a circuit breaker
following tripping by protective relays.
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 Relays can be divided into six functional categories:
 Regulating relays. Are activated when an operating parameter
deviates from predetermined limits. Regulating relays function
through supplementary equipment to restore the quantity to the
prescribed limits.
 Auxiliary relays. Operate in response to the opening or closing of
the operating circuit to supplement another relay or device. These
include timers, contact-multiplier relays, sealing units, isolating
relays, lock-out relays, closing relays, and trip relays.
 Synchronizing (or synchronism check) relays. Assure that proper
conditions exist for interconnecting two sections of a power system.


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 In addition to these functional categories, relays may be classified by
input, operating principle or structure, and performance characteristic.
The following are some of the classifications and definitions described
in ANSI/ IEEE Standard C37.90 (see also ANSI/IEEE C37.100
“Definitions for Power Switchgear”):
 Inputs
 Current, Voltage, Power
 Pressure, Frequency
 Temperature
 Flow
 Vibration


 Operating Principle or Structures
 Current balance Percentage
 Multirestraint
 Product
 Electromechanical
 Thermal
 Solid state
 Static
 Microprocessor

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 Performance Characteristics
 Differential
 Distance
 Directional overcurrent
 Inverse time
 Definite time
 Undervoltage
 Overvoltage
 Ground or phase
 High or low speed
 Pilot
 Phase comparison
 Directional comparison
 Current differential
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 By design mode:
 Electromechanical
 Plunger type
 Induction type
 Thermal
 Solid state
 Computer type
 By parameter controlled:
 Current
 Voltage
 Power
 Impedance (distance)
 Direction
 Frequency


 By mode of Detection of faults :
 Level detection
 Magnitude comparison
 Differential comparison
 Phase angle comparison
 Harmonic content
 Frequency sensing
 By operating time:
 Instantaneous
 Time delay
 Independent delay
 Dependent delay

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 Relays are generally classified by their speed of operation as follows:
 Instantaneous
 These relays operate as soon as a secure decision is made.
 No intentional time delay is introduced to slow down the relay response
 Time delay
 An intentional time delay is inserted between the relay decision time and the initiation
of the trip action
 This time delay can be dependent on some parameter (usually inverse time
dependent) or independent
 High speed
 A relay that operates in less than a specified time (usually 3 cycles)
 Ultra high speed
 This term is not included in the Relay Standards but is commonly considered to be
operation in 4 milliseconds or less
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 Analog relays are those in which the measured quantities are converted into
lower voltage but similar signals, which are then combined or compared directly
to reference values in level detectors to produce the desired output.
 Digital relays are those in which the measured ac quantities are manipulated in
analog form and subsequently converted into square-wave (binary) voltages.
Logic circuits or microprocessors compare the phase relation-ships of the
square waves to make a trip decision.
 Numerical relays are those in which the measured ac quantities are sequentially
sampled and converted into numeric data form. A microprocessor performs
mathematical and/or logical operations on the data to make trip decisions.
 Protective relays for power systems are made up of one or
more fault-detecting or decision units, along with any
necessary logic networks and auxiliary units.
 Because a number of these fault-detecting or decision
units are used in a variety of relays, they are called basic
units.
 Basic units fall into several categories: electromechanical
units, solid-state units integrated circuits, and
microprocessor architecture.
 Combinations of units are then used to form basic logic
circuits applicable to protective relays.
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 Four types of electromechanical units are widely used: magnetic
attraction, magnetic induction, D'Arsonval, and thermal units.
 Plunger units have cylindrical coils with an external magnetic structure
and a center plunger.
 When the current or voltage applied to the coil exceeds the pickup value,
the plunger moves upward to operate a set of contacts.
 The force F required to move the plunger is proportional to the square of
the current in the coil.
 The plunger unit's operating characteristics are largely determined by the
plunger shape, internal core, magnetic structure, coil design, and
magnetic shunts.
 Plunger units are instantaneous in that no delay is purposely introduced.
 Typical operating times are 5 to 50 msec, with the longer times occurring
near the threshold values of pickup.
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THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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