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SETTING ADVERTISING OBJECTIVES

Functions of Advertising Objectives
1. To operate as communication and coordination devices (copywriter - media
buyer - research specialists)

2. To provide a criterion for decision making

3. To evaluate results (market share, brand awareness)
Sales As An Objective
Sales
Advertising
Price
Distribution
Packaging
Product features
Competition
Consumer Tastes
Factors influencing Sales
Long-Term Impact of Advertising
Advertising
New customers
Immediate Sales
Change Attitude
Improve image
Future Sales
Operational Objectives of Advertising
1. Who is the target segment?

2. What is the ultimate behaviour within that segment that advertising is
attempting to precipitate, reinforce, change or influence?

3. What is the process that will lead to the desired behaviour and what role can
advertising play in the process? Is it necessary to create awareness,
communicate information about the brand, create an image or attitude, build
long-term brand equity and associations, or associate feelings or a type of
user personality with a brand?
How does one proceed?
Behavioral Dynamics
Segment O
Those buying
Other brands exclusively
Segment N
Those not buying
product class
Segment E
Existing Customers
Customer Types
Approach:
To increase size of E
To attract O to get them to try our brand
To attract people from N
To increase brand loyalty
To reduce flow from E to O
To increase consumer promotions viz., premium
To increase usage of existing customers
Advertising Response Variables Intervening Between
Advertising & Action
To identify and use advertising response variables, the key questions to be
addressed are:

1. What communication, association, or persuasion task will be likely to precipitate
the desired action?

2. How can this task best be conceptualized and measured?


 Brand awareness
 Brand comprehension
 Brand image and personality
 Brand attitude
 Associating feelings with brands or use experiences
Intervening and Behavioral Variables
Model Advertising Variable Intervening Variables Behavioral Variables
A Advertising Brand Awareness Trial Purchase

B Advertising Brand Awareness Loyalty

C Advertising Brand Awareness Knowledge of brand attributes Trial Purchase

D Advertising Knowledge of new application Increase usage

E Advertising Sales leads

F Advertising Knowledge about company Sales via personal selling

G Advertising Associate Brand with User Type Loyalty

H Advertising Brand Attitude Loyalty

I Advertising Associate Feelings and Brand Use Loyalty

J Advertising Brand Awareness Knowledge of Brand Attribute Trial Purchase
Brand Attributes

K Advertising Knowledge of Brand Attributes Trial Purchase
Brand Attitude
Specifying the Target Segment
A basic question in the objective-setting process is the identity of the target segment.

To whom is the advertising to be addressed?
DAGMAR Approach
Defining An Advertising Goal

An advertising goal is a specific communication task, to be accomplished among a
defined audience, in a given period of time.
A Communication Task
Unaware


Aware


Comprehension and Image


Attitude


Action
A Hierarchy of Effects Model of the Communication Process
A Specific Task
Measurement procedure: What appeal or image is to be communicated.

Benchmark: To know the starting conditions. To know whether the existing
image needs to be changed, reinforced, diffused or sharpened.

Target Audience: To know the target audience precisely.

Time Period: The objective should involve a particular time period.

Written Goals: Goals should be committed to paper.
Challenges to the DAGMAR Approach
Sales Goal: Only a sales measure is relevant.

Practicability: Implementation difficulties inherent in approach.

Measurement Problems: What should we really measure when we speak of
attitude, awareness, or brand comprehension?

Noise in the System: Many causal factors other than advertising that determines
sales.

Inhibiting the Great Idea: The “great creative idea” is a dream or hope of many
advertisers.

Hierarchy Model of Communication Effect: attacks the basic hierarchy model
which postulates a set of sequential steps of awareness, comprehension, and
attitude leading to action. Action can precede attitude and even comprehension with
an impulse purchase of a low-involvement product.
Continuous Advertising Planning Program (CAPP) -
Consumer Demand profile
Total Users
Brand
Awareness
Brand
Acceptance
Brand
Bought Last
Brand
Satisfaction
Preference
Equality
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
Motivation to Process
Information
Central Route to
Attitude Change
Ability to Process
Information
Advertisement
Yes
Yes
Peripheral Cue
Present
Peripheral Route
to Attitude
Change
Yes
The ELM Model of Attitude Change
No
No