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# Chapter 3 : Braking Performance

By
Dr. Gan Leong Ming
Semester 2012/2013-II
General Equations
Based on the NSL written for x direction:
drag c Aerodynami D
force braking axle Rear F
force braking axle Front F
on decelerati Linear a - D
on accelerati nal Gravitatio g
weight Vehicle W
where
Wsin - D - F - -F D
g
W
- Ma
A
xr
xf
x x
A xr xf x x
= O
=
=
=
= =
=
=
O = =
Arise from the torque of the brakes
along with rolling resistance effects,
bearing friction, and driveline drags
Constant Deceleration
velocity Forward V
vehicle on the forces on decelerati al longitudin all of total The F
where
dt
dV
M
F
D
xt
xt
x
=
=
= =
Based on the previous equation:
Constant Deceleration
By integrate the equation from initial velocity V
0
to final velocity V
f`
change velocity for the Time t
where
t
M
F
V V
dt
M
F
dV
s
s
xt
f 0
t
0
xt
V
V
s f
0
=
=
=
} }
Since V = dx/dt,

on decelerati the during traveled Distance X
where
X
M
F
2
V V
xt
2
f
2
0
=
=

Constant Deceleration
In the case where the deceleration is a full stop, then V
f
= zero,
x
0
xt
0
s
x
2
0
xt
2
0
D
V
M
F
V
t
is stop to time the and
2D
V
M
F
2
V
SD Distance, Stopping
= =
= =
0 s
2
0
V t
V SD
o
o
Deceleration with Wind Resistance
The total braking force is the summation of total brake force from the
axles and the drag force from the wind resistance
factor drag c Aerodynami C
s rear wheel and front of force brake Total F
where
CV F F
b
2
b x
=
=
+ =

Therefore
(

+
=
+
=
} }
b
2
0 b
0
V
2
b
SD
0
F
CV F
ln
2C
M
SD
CV F
VdV
M dx
0
Energy/Power Absorption
The energy absorbed by braking system is the kinetic energy
of motion for the vehicle, hence
( )
2
f
2
0
V V
2
M
Energy =
The power dissipation is greatest at the beginning of the stop
when the speed is highest, thus
s
2
0
t
V
2
M
Power =
Braking Forces
May arise from a number of sources:

Brakes system
Rolling Resistance
Aerodynamic Drag
Driveline Drag
Braking Forces Rolling Resistance
Always opposes vehicle motion, aids the brakes
t Coefficien Resistance Rolling f
where
W f ) W (W f R R
r
r r f r xr xf
=
= + = +
** Normally Rolling resistance forces equivalent to about 0.01g deceleration
Braking Forces Aerodynamic Drag
Depend on the dynamic pressure
Proportional to square of the speed

At low speeds, it is negligible

At normal highway speeds,

~ Aerodynamic drag force equivalent to about
0.03g
Braking Forces Driveline Drag
Due to engine, transmission and final drive drag
and inertia effects
As effective mass
Drag arises from bearing and gear friction in the
transmission and differential, and engine braking
Engine braking is equivalent to motoring
torque (internal friction + air pumping loss)
Disappear when the engine at high speed/over-
revs (valves floating)
Braking Forces Driveline Drag
For manual transmission, engine braking is
multiplied by gear ratio selected

For automatic transmission, torque
converter is designed for forward power
transmission, which inefficient for reverse
direction

Braking Forces Driveline Drag
Driveline drag depends on the rate of
deceleration

Fast slowing than driveline : drive wheels
will pick up extra load of decelerating driveline
as well

Low level decelerations : driveline drag
sufficient to decelerate the rotating driveline,
which contribute braking effort to drive wheels

Contribute directly to the braking effort
Either positive sense (uphill) or negative (downhill)
Wsin R
g
=
( )
O ~ =
= ~
W Wsin R
g
For small angles typical of most grades:
**A grade of 4% (0.04) will be equivalent to a deceleration of +/- 0.04g
Brakes
- Two types Drum Brake and Disc Brake
Design of Drum brake (left) and Disc brake (right)
Brakes - Comparison
Drum brake has high brake factor and easy
incorporation of parking brake features

May not be as consistent in torque
performance as disc brakes

Lower brake factors of disc brakes require
higher actuation effort + development of
integral parking brake features
Brake Factor
Mechanical advantage to minimise the actuation effort
required
For drum brake,
a
P
B
N
B
N
A
N
A
N
e
n
m
A
B
Brake factor
pivot the to force normal the from distance lar Perpendicu m
pivot to force friction lining from distance lar Perpendicu n
drum and A lining between force Normal N
pivot to force actuation from distance lar Perpendicu e
where
0 mN - N n eP M
: A shoe for point pivot about the moments Taking
A
A A a p
=
=
=
=
= + =

Brake factor

) n m (
e
P
F
and
) n m (
e
P
F
and
N F and N F
: is shoe brake each at force friction The
a
B
a
A
B B A A

+
=

=
= =
Brake Factor
Moment produced to rotate against the drum
Increase the friction force
Self-servo action yields mechanical advantage/brake factor

Brake Lock when n = m and brake factor =

Trailing Shoe (B)
Friction force acts to reduce the application force
Lower brake factor
Require higher application force

changes due to heating, wear which cause brake to behave more
erratically

Disc brake
less change in
Better torque consistency
Require more actuation effort
Brake Factor
Drum Brake
Velocity
effect
Temperature
effect
Time
Time
T
o
r
q
u
e

T
o
r
q
u
e

Disc Brake
T 1/V
Less variation
e) Temperatur Velocity, , (P f T
a b
=
Variation between Drum and Disc brake cause difficulty to maintain proper
balance between front and rear braking effort during maximum effort stop
Less consistent deceleration cause longer stopping time
Brake Factor
( )
wheels of on decelerati Rotational
) components drive (and wheels of inertia Rotational I
tires the of radius Rolling r
where
r
I - T
F
: force braking generate to acts brake by produced Torque
w
w
w w b
b
=
=
=
=
o
o
By lumped in the inertia with the vehicle mass for convenience in calculation:
r
T
F
b
b
=
** brake force can only be increase to the limit of
the frictional coupling between the tire and road**
Tire-Road Friction for maximum brake force
Hysteresis
-Arise from the
intermolecular bonds
between rubber and the
surface
of friction)
-Represent energy loss
in the rubber as it
deforms when sliding
over the aggregate in the
-Not affected by water on
-Better wet traction with
high hysteresis rubber in
Depend on some small amount of slip (cause deform) occurring at the tire-road interface
velocity forward Vehicle V
where
V
r - V
Slip
=
=
=
e
e
Wheel slip (%)
B
r
a
k
i
n
g

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

(
B
r
a
k
e

f
o
r
c
e
/
v
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

l
o
a
d
)

0 100
1
Hysteresis
Wet
Dry
Braking coefficient affected by
1. Velocity
Dry road f 1/V for both
water thickness
2. Inflation Pressure
z
F 1/F
z
for both dry and wet

Problem
Consider a light truck weighting 1649 kg,
performing a full stop 100 km/hr on a level
surface with a brake application that develops
a steady brake force of 8900 N. Determine the
deceleration, stopping distance, time to stop,
energy dissipated and the brake horsepower
at initial application and averaged over the
stop. Neglect aerodynamic and rolling
resistance forces.
Brake Proportioning
Lockup reduces the brake on an axle, and results in some loss of ability to
control the vehicle.
Balancing by proportioning the braking pressure to both front and rear axles
accordance with the peak traction forces possible.
d rs x r
d fs x f
W - W
L
h
g
W
D
L
b
W W
W W
L
h
g
W
D
L
c
W W
= =
+ = + =
Axle static
transfer
Brake Proportioning
friction of t coefficien Peak
where
D
g
W
L
h
W W F
and
D
g
W
L
h
W W F
p
x rs p r p xmr
x fs p f p xmf
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
Maximum brake force on each axle given by:
M
F F
D
and
M
F F
D
xf xmr
x
xr xmf
x
+
=
+
=
velocity Forward V
vehicle on the forces on decelerati al longitudin all of total The F
where
dt
dV
M
F
D
slides, Previous From
xt
xt
x
=
=
= =
Front rear
rear Front
Brake Proportioning
r
P
G
r
T
F
: G Gain, Brake by described
be can wheels individual on force brake The
L
h
1
F
L
h
W
F
L
h
1
F
L
h
W
F
: axle each on force braking maximum Finally,
a b
b
p
xf rs p
xmr
p
xr fs p
xmf
= =
+
|
.
|

\
|

=

|
.
|

\
|
+
=
F
r
o
n
t

B
r
a
k
e

F
o
r
c
e

Rear Brake Force
L
h
1
W
p
fs p

Front and
rear lockup
L
h
1
W
p
fs p
+
L
h
1
h/L
Slope
p
p

=
L
h
1
h/L
Slope
p
p
+
=
Brake torque
Brake force
Brake gain (Nm/kPa)
Application pressure
Brake Proportioning Proportioning Valve
kPa 3450 P for 3450) - 0.3(P 3450 P and P P
kPa 3450 P for Pressure n Applicatio P P P
mean Which
kPa/0.3 3450 Example
rear at increment l /additiona both wheel for pressure Equal
valve ning Proportino
a a r a f
a a r f
> + = =
< = = =
=
=
Anti-Lock Brake Systems
Sense wheel lockup occurs
Release the brakes momentarily on locked
wheels
Reapply them when wheel spins up again

Consists of an ECU, solenoid (for release
and reapply) and wheel speed sensor

Anti-Lock Brake Systems
Wheel slip (%)
B
r
a
k
i
n
g

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

1
2
3
Cycling
Wheel speed diminish more or less in
accordance with vehicle speed region 1
Start to slip
Wheel speed begin to drop rapidly
indicating the tire has gone through the peak
of the -slip curve
ABS intervenes and release the
brakes on those wheels before
lockup occurs
Wheel speed picks up again the
brakes are reapplied
Anti-Lock Brake Systems
1
2
3
Times (sec)
W
h
e
e
l

S
p
e
e
d

LR
RR
LF
RF
Rear Wheel Lock Up
Lock up of front wheels causes loss of the ability to steer
the vehicle and it will generally continue straight ahead
despite any steering inputs, drifting to the side only in
response to cross slope or side winds

Rear wheel lock up places a motor vehicle in an unstable
condition.

Once it lock up, any yaw disturbances will initiate a
rotation of the vehicle

Braking efficiency
p
act
b

D
=
- To recognizing that braking performance of any vehicle will vary according
to the friction of the road surface
- Defined as the ratio of actual deceleration (in gs) achieved to the best
performance possible on the given road surface
- As a design tool to assess success in optimizing the vehicle braking
system
- Determined by calculating brake forces, deceleration, axle loads, and
braking coefficient on each axle as a function of application pressure
- Useful method for evaluating the performance of brake systems
Problem
Calculate the braking coefficients and braking efficiency for a
passenger car in 650 kPa increments of application pressure
up to 4850 kPa, given the following information:

Wheelbase = 275.6 cm
CGH = 52 cm Tire radius = 30.8 cm
Weights : W
f
= 1002 kg W
r
= 845.5 kg Total = 1847.5 kg
Front brake gain = 20 in-Ib/psi
Rear brake gain = 14 in-Ib/psi
Proportioning valve design = 2000/0.3