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Seven of the

Worlds major
shipping
channels
through which
the majority of
global trade
passes.
Can you name
them?

(1) Panama Canal, (2) Bosphorus, (3) Dover Straits,


(4) Suez Canal, (5) Straits of Hormuz, (6) Straits of Malacca
(7) Welland Canal.

The ICC International Maritime Bureau Report:


Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships
The report identifies 26 ports and anchorages that are the most prone to attacks.
Chittagong, Lagos, Cochin, Chennai, Dakar and Rio Haina headed the list. Again,
waters off Indonesia were the most dangerous.
The following six areas shared two thirds of the total reported incidents i.e 152
from a total of 234 incidents for the period

Straits of Malacca
Average Daily Oil Flows
through the Straits
exceed 10 million bbl/d

More than 50,000


vessels per year transit
the 620 mile Strait of
Malacca, with 900
vessels using part of
the Straits daily.
The Phillips Channel in
the Singapore Strait, is
only 1.5 miles wide at
its narrowest point.
Thirty percent of the world's trade and 80 percent of Japan's crude oil is transported
through the narrow stretch of water between Malaysia and Indonesia.
Singapore and Malaysia have begun escorting oil tankers and increasing naval
patrols in their waters, but this has not eliminated the threat of terrorism in the
region's shipping channels.

NEWS FLASH (1)


JANE'S NAVY INTERNATIONAL
Malaysia asks for help to fight piracy
Malaysia's Prime Minister Yab Dato Seri Dr Mahathir Mohamad told international
delegates at the official opening of the Langkawi International Maritime and
Aerospace exhibition that Malaysia needs assistance to fight maritime piracy and
to secure the waters surrounding it, particularly in the Straits of Malacca.
He went on to add that Malaysia is working hard to curb the piracy.........
However, Dr Mahathir stated that "there is a financial limit to what Malaysia can
do to protect international shipping, which passes through the straits in
increasing numbers." Indeed, despite these measures, the International Maritime
Organisation's Maritime Security Committee states that piracy is still on the
increase in the region.
A Royal Malaysian Navy captain who declined to be named told Jane's Naval
International that the majority of piracy occurs in, or from, Indonesian waters,
and although the RMN has the right of 'hot pursuit' if pirates try to take shelter in
Indonesian waters, he expressed frustration that the attacks rarely occur within
range of RMN vessels. He added that the navy needs yet more patrol boats to
provide fuller coverage of the straits.
Editor: Nick Brown

New brand of piracy threatens oil tankers in Malacca Straits

Front Century, Built 1998 Hyundai, 310,000dwt, 15 kts, LOA 335m (1,097 ft), Beam 58m (190 ft), Draught 23m (75 ft)

Kuala Lumpur - Gangs of heavily armed pirates using fishing and speed boats
have been targeting small oil tankers in the Malacca Straits, according to the ICC's
Piracy Reporting Centre.

Issuing a fresh warning today to commercial ships operating in the area, the IMB
says the recent wave of attacks follow a pattern set by Indonesian Aceh rebels.
Captain Pottengal Mukundan of the ICC's International Maritime Bureau (IMB) whose organization manages the Piracy Reporting Center - says the latest attacks
raise a number of serious concerns.

The report highlights the following piracy prone areas


S E Asia and the Indian Sub Continent
Bangladesh - Chittagong and Mongla at berth and anchorage.
India - Chennai, Cochin
Indonesia - Adang Bay, Balikpapan, Dumai, Gaspar (Gelasa) Straits, Kuala Langsa, Lawi Lawi, Pulau
Laut, Samarinda, Tanjong Priok (Jakarta). Areas around Anambas and Bintan Islands - increasing
number of serious and brutal incidents have been reported within 30 km radius of Lat 01 N - Long 105
E in June 2003.
Malaysia - Pulau Pangkor
Philippines - Manila, Zamboanga
Vietnam - Haipong, Vung Tau

Africa and Red Sea


Africa: Abidjan, Bonny River, Dakar, Dar Es Salaam, Lagos, Luanda, Nana Creek, Tema, Warri.
Gulf of Aden
Somali waters - Eastern and Northeastern coasts are high-risk areas for hijackings.
South and Central America and the Caribbean waters
Colombia - Barranquilia, Buena Ventura, Cartagena
Cuba - Havana
Dominican Republic - Rio Haina
Ecuador - Guayaquil
Guyana - Georgetown
Jamaica - Kingston
Peru - Callao

The Straits of Hormuz


Oil Flows:
Average daily
flow 13+
million bbl/d.
By far the
world's most
important oil
chokepoint, the
Strait consists
of 2-mile wide
channels for
inbound and
outbound
tanker traffic,
as well as a 2mile wide
buffer zone.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1)

Andaman and Nicobar Islands (2)


Hydrocarbons

India is opening up the strategic Andaman Islands in the


Bay of Bengal for oil and gas... with reserves estimated
at over 1 trillion cubic metres. 12 wells have been dug in
the Andamans with one already yielded gas (BBC 1998)
Smuggling
Thailand and India .... may initiate joint naval patrols
aimed at interdicting smuggling and illicit arms
shipments from southern Thailand across the Andaman
Sea and Bay of Bengal. (Jane's Defence Weekly
6/2003)

Andaman & Nicobar Islands (3)


Chinese threat
China is helping Myanmar modernise several
naval bases including the Cocos Islands,
building radar, refit and refuel facilities that
could support Chinese submarine operations
in the region. The Chinese are believed to be
establishing a Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)
facility on Great Coco Island, only 30 nautical
miles from the northernmost Andaman Island.

Fear of China has led to India establishing a


tri-service command on the Andaman and
Nicobar chain of islands in 2001. Based on
Port Blair, is tasked with exerting influence
over Indian Ocean sea-lanes, combating
piracy and guaranteeing the smooth entry of
ships heading towards the Malacca Straits. It
also includes surveillance and monitoring
stations across the 750km long Andaman and
Nicobar archipelago.(Jane's Intelligence
Review 5/2003)

Corfu Straits (1)

Corfu Straits (2)


ALBANIANS KILLED WHILE SMUGGLING REFUGEES. In a shoot-out off
the Corfu coast, Greek coast guards have killed an Albanian sailor who was
trying to smuggle illegal immigrants into Greece. The smuggler reportedly
opened fire on a Greek patrol boat during a chase. Shortly before that
incident, Greek patrols arrested another Albanian who also opened fire on a
Greek vessel. Meanwhile, an Albanian smuggler was killed when his
motorboat hit an Italian Navy vessel during a boat chase on 24 April,
Reuters reported. -- Fabian Schmidt (4/1996)

Following incidents of attacks against tourists in Greek waters, the government in


Athens ordered Hellenic Navy gunboats to `discourage' Albanian pirates from
preying in waters around Corfu. This proved effective.
Jane's World Insurgency and Terrorism 04-Jul-2000

Corfu Straits (3)


Speedboat smugglers bottled up in Adriatic chase
Police helped by an Italian helicopter in an operation against rampant smuggling
gangs, seized 12 men, five speedboats and a 1,000-horsepower launch off the
Albanian coast. To the south, a Greek naval vessel was reported to be guarding
potential escape channels near the island of Corfu.

Detained in Albania's latest drive to round up gangs running migrants, sex slaves
and drugs from the Albanian coast to Italy, an illicit trade they have plied almost
at will for a decade by eluding slower pursuers. Albania has long been under
pressure from the European Union to shut down their operations. This time,
police were using captured boats capable of speeds of around 70 knots (80
mph) to catch fugitives who put to sea.
Reuters

Italy is one of the main doorways for illegal immigrants


into Europe, partly because of its long coast.

Dramatic pictures, showing one of the


speedboats of the Albanian mafia being
intercepted by Italian security forces.
The speedboat heads for Italy trying to
land a batch of illegal immigrants on
Italy's Adriatic coast.
Boxes of drugs were thrown overboard
as the gangsters, travelling at 60 miles
an hour, evaded the helicopters and
ships trying to encircle them.

NEWS FLASH (2)


200 people feared drowned.(Reuters)
Rescue teams found two more bodies four days after a rickety boat
carrying African immigrants sank during bad weather in the
Mediterranean. So far 14 bodies have been recovered. Forty-one
survivors were rescued, but an estimated 200 people are still
missing.
The illegal immigrants were from Egypt, Morocco, Niger, Somalia
and Liberia. They were trying to reach Italy with the hope of
eventually reaching Europe.
Immigrant Boats Pouring into Sicily(Associated Press)
Good summer weather has encouraged nearly 1,000 suspected illegal immigrants to
pour into southern Italy via boats in the last few days.
Italy's largest detention center in Isola Capo Rizzuto is already filled to capacity.
Thousands of illegal immigrants, mostly from the Middle East, Asia and Africa, use
Italy as a stepping stone to locations in western Europe. Some attempt to win asylum
in Italy; others remain illegally.

Straits of Otranto (1)

635 sq naut mls

Straits of Otranto (2)


USV APPLICATION AREA ANALYSIS - DETAIL OF OTRANTO LOCATION
engine
speed

rpm
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3350
3500
4000
4300

nett
fuel cons- running
umption
time

US gall/hr
1.7
2.5
3.8
5.1
8.0
9.9
11.8
14.8
16.1

hr
63.1
43.6
28.4
21.1
13.5
10.9
9.2
7.4
6.7

estimated
hull speed

kts
4
7
13
15
19
23
26
38
50
Nr of USV's
Search Area

Otranto
Straits
coastline
interval
between
passes
[min]
1600
913
491
426
337
278
246
168
128
1
635

Otranto
Straits
coastline
interval
between
passes
[min]
800
457
246
213
168
139
123
84
64
2
635

Otranto
Straits
coastline
interval
between
passes
[min]
533
304
164
142
112
93
82
56
43
3
635

Otranto
Otranto Otranto
Straits
Straits
Straits
coastline coastline coastline
interval
interval interval
between between between
passes
passes
passes
[min]
[min]
[min]
400
320
267
228
183
152
123
98
82
107
85
71
84
67
56
70
56
46
62
49
41
42
34
28
32
26
21
4
5
6
635
635
635

CONCLUSION: 2 USVs give a minimum capability to patrol the full area with a pass interval of every
64mins when operating at full throttle. If USVs are to be operated at max fuel efficiency 3350rpm
corresponding to a speed of 23 kts, then 5 USVs would provide a pass interval of 56 mins. Operating
at the lower speed would considerably reduce fuel costs and increase (at least double) engine life
MTBO (mean time between overhaul).

Straits of Otranto (3)

INTERVAL BETWEEN
PASSES (mins)

USV APPLICATION ANALYSIS - OTRANTO ITALY


PATROL AREA 635 SQ NAUT MLS
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

1 USV
2 USV's
3 USV's
4 USV's
5 USV's
6 USV's

10

copyright 2003 MRV International LLC

20

30

USV SPEED (kts)

40

50

Straits of Gibraltar (1)


People smuggling
http://www.interpol.int/Public/THB/PeopleSmuggling/Default.asp

Smuggling routes
Especially during summer months Spain has to face the arrival of
thousands of illegal immigrants originating from the Sub-Saharan region
on the African continent. These willing immigrants undertake the
hazardous trip to travel from Morocco to Southern Spain by using the
narrow Strait of Gibraltar where only 21 km are separating Europe and
Africa. Many people travelling in small, overcrowded boats, has already
drowned in their desperate try to reach Europe.

Straits of Gibraltar (2)

USV Analysis of Prospect Locations


USV APPLICATION AREA ANALYSIS - FIVE INTERNATIONAL LOCATIONS
Location
Corfu Straits
Greek Islands
Malacca Straits [1]
Malacca Straits [2]
Otranto Straits coastline
Hormuz Straits [1]
Hormuz Straits [2]
Gibraltar Straits
Andaman+Nicobar Islands
rev2

Zone
straits
archipeligo
danger zone
whole straits
territorial sea
accompanying one ship
straits + approach channels
straits + approach channels
EEZ

Client
Country
Greece
Greece
Singapore
Malysia
Italy
UAE / Oman
UAE / Oman
Spain
India

Patrol Area
Speed
[sq naut mls] Restrictions
13.2
no
460.0
12250.0
635.0
2720.0
4500.0
1022.0
135000.0

yes
no
no
yes
yes
no
no

Minimum Nr
of USV's
1
20
6
40 [90]
2 [5]
35
15 [33]
4 [8]
60
[cruising speed]

Analysis of each area produces a minimum USV recommendation shown in the


table. In the case of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands a pass interval of 24 hours was
deemed acceptable.
It is of course for the client to specify the requirement and this analysis would be part
of the consultation discussions.
Additional USVs would be required to allow for service and maintenance work.