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MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY

By :
Annisyah (34151266 )
Mai Turgiyanti
(3415126630)

Introduction
Muscle tissue reaches 40% to 50%
by weight. Generally composed of
contractile cells called muscle fibers.
Through contraction, muscle cells
produce movement and do the job

Muscular System
Functions
Body movement (Locomotion)
Maintenance of posture
Respiration
Diaphragm and intercostal contractions

Communication (Verbal and Facial)


Heart beat
Production of body heat (Thermogenesis)

Properties of Muscle
Excitability: capacity of muscle to
respond to a stimulus
Contractility: ability of a muscle to
shorten and generate pulling force
Extensibility: muscle can be
stretched back to its original
length
Elasticity: ability of muscle to recoil
to original resting length after
stretched

Klasifikasi otot
Struktural
Otot

Volunter
Fungsional
Involunter
Lokasi

Types of Muscle

Skeletal
Attached to bones
Makes up 40% of body weight
Responsible for locomotion, facial expressions, posture,
respiratory movements, other types of body movement
Voluntary in action; controlled by somatic motor neurons

Smooth
In the walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, eye, glands, uterus,
skin
Some functions: propel urine, mix food in digestive tract,
dilating/constricting pupils, regulating blood flow,
In some locations, autorhythmic
Controlled involuntarily by endocrine and autonomic nervous
systems

Cardiac
Heart: major source of movement of blood
Autorhythmic
Controlled involuntarily by endocrine and autonomic nervous
systems

Skeletal Muscle

Connective Tissue of a Muscle


Epimysium. Dense regular c.t. surrounding entire
muscle
Separates muscle from surrounding tissues and organs
Connected to the deep fascia

Perimysium. Collagen and elastic fibers


surrounding a group of muscle fibers called a
fascicle
Contains b.v and nerves

Endomysium. Loose connective tissue that


surrounds individual muscle fibers
Also contains b.v., nerves, and satellite cells (embryonic
stem cells function in repair of muscle tissue

Collagen fibers of all 3 layers come together at


each end of muscle to form a tendon or
aponeurosis.

Muscle Tissue Types

Basic Features of a Skeletal Muscle


Muscle
attachments
Most skeletal
muscles run from
one bone to another
One bone will move
other bone
remains fixed
Origin less
movable attachment
Insertion more
movable attachment

Skeletal Muscle
Long cylindrical
cells
Many nuclei per
cell
Striated
Voluntary
Rapid
contractions

Skeletal Muscle Structure

Composed of muscle cells


(fibers), connective tissue,
blood vessels, nerves
Fibers are long, cylindrical, and
multinucleated
Tend to be smaller diameter in
small muscles and larger in
large muscles. 1 mm- 4 cm in
length
Develop from myoblasts;
numbers remain constant
Striated appearance
Nuclei are peripherally located

Muscle Attachments

Antagonistic Muscles

Sumber energi untuk


kontraksi

1. kreatin fosfat (CP)


2. reaksi anaerob
3.reaksi aerob
4. oxygen debt

Microanatomy of Skeletal
Muscle

Muscle Fiber Anatomy

Sarcolemma - cell membrane


Surrounds the sarcoplasm (cytoplasm of fiber)
Contains many of the same organelles seen in other
cells
An abundance of the oxygen-binding protein
myoglobin
Punctuated by openings called the transverse tubules
(T-tubules)
Narrow tubes that extend into the sarcoplasm at right
angles to the surface
Filled with extracellular fluid
Myofibrils -cylindrical structures within muscle fiber
Are bundles of protein filaments (=myofilaments)
Two types of myofilaments
1. Actin filaments (thin filaments)
2. Myosin filaments (thick filaments)
At each end of the fiber, myofibrils are anchored to the
inner surface of the sarcolemma

Structure of Actin and


Myosin

Myosin
(Thick)
Myofilament

Many elongated myosin


molecules shaped like golf clubs.
Single filament contains roughly
300 myosin molecules
Molecule consists of two heavy
myosin molecules wound
together to form a rod portion
lying parallel to the myosin
myofilament and two heads that
extend laterally.
Myosin heads
1. Can bind to active sites on the
actin molecules to form crossbridges. (Actin binding site)
2. Attached to the rod portion by
a hinge region that can bend
and straighten during
contraction.
3. Have ATPase activity: activity
that breaks down adenosine
triphosphate (ATP), releasing
energy. Part of the energy is
used to bend the hinge region
of the myosin molecule during
contraction

Thin Filament: composed of 3


major proteins
1. F (fibrous) actin
2. Tropomyosin
3. Troponin
Two strands of fibrous (F) actin
form a double helix extending
the length of the myofilament;
attached at either end at
sarcomere.
. Composed of G actin
monomers each of which
has a myosin-binding site
(see yellow dot)
. Actin site can bind myosin
during muscle contraction.
Tropomyosin: an elongated
protein winds along the groove
of the F actin double helix.
Troponin is composed of three
subunits:
. Tn-A : binds to actin
. Tn-T :binds to tropomyosin,
. Tn-C :binds to calcium ions.

Actin (Thin)
Myofilament
s

Smooth Muscle
Spool shape
One nucleus
Tropomyosin
No troponin
Dense bodies analogous to Z
line
Slow myosin ATPase
Myosin has light chains
Little sarcoplasmic reticulum
Three type of filament

Smooth Muscle Cell

Copyright 2008
Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin

Figure 12.33

Type of Smooth Muscle


1. Plain Muscle Multi Unit
- Consists of many units that function
independently of each other
- Neurogenic Characteristically, the
autonomic nervous system involuntary
- There is a large blood vessels, airways in
the lung smooth, eye muscles to adjust the
lens, the iris to change the size of the pupil,
and the base of hair follicles which the
contractions cause goosebumps standing.

2. Muscle Plain Single Unit /


Visceral
- Muscle cells form a functional
syncytium
- The walls are hollow organs
- Is miogenik
- There are two types of spontaneous
depolarization.

Pontaneous Depolarization Type


1. Potential Triggers
Membrane potential is gradually depolarized
themselves as passive ion flux shifts that accompany
changes in the permeability of the channel
automatically
2. Potential Slow Wave
Hyperpolarization and depolarization gradual
changes due to changes in the cyclic alternating
speed automatic active transport of sodium ions
penetrate the membrane
An outbreak if the action potential depolarization
brings the membrane to threshold

Spontaneous
Depolarizations

Copyright 2008
Pearson Education, Inc.,
publishing as Benjamin

Figure 12.36

Cardiac Muscle
Only in the heart and miogenik
The combination of skeletal
muscle and smooth muscle
Miofilamen form a pattern of
regular tape, so mottled
Thin filament troponin and
tropomyosin have
have many mitochondria and
myoglobin
T-tubules and sarcoplasmic
reticulum sufficiently developed

Skeletal

Cardiac

Smooth

Control

voluntary

unvoluntary

Unvoluntary

Neural input

somatic

ANS

ANS

Hormone

Epi

Epi/others

Ca++ prot

Troponin

Troponin

Calmodulin

Gap junctions No

Yes

Yes

Pacemaker

Yes

No

Appearance

No

Cross-bridge Formation

Mechanism of Muscle
Contraction

Contractio
n

Muscle Contraction
Nerve impulse reaches myoneural
junction
Acetylcholine is released from motor
neuron
Ach binds with receptors in the
muscle membrane to allow sodium to
enter
Sodium influx will generate an action
potential in the sarcolemma

Muscle Contraction
Action potential travels down T
tubule
Sarcoplamic reticulum releases
calcium
Calcium binds with troponin to
move the troponin, tropomyosin
complex
Binding sites in the actin filament
are exposed

Muscle Contraction
Myosin head attach to binding sites
and create a power stroke
ATP detaches myosin heads and
energizes them for another
contaction
When action potentials cease the
muscle stop contracting

Contraction Speed

Smooth Muscle
Contraction

Isometric/Isotonic Contractions

Isometric: muscle
contraction without
movement no
muscle shortening
Isotonic: muscle
contraction with
movement
muscle shortens

Energy Sources
ATP provides immediate energy for muscle
contractions from 3 sources
Creatine phosphate
During resting conditions stores energy to
synthesize ATP
Anaerobic respiration
Occurs in absence of oxygen and results in
breakdown of glucose to yield ATP and lactic acid
Aerobic respiration
Requires oxygen and breaks down glucose to
produce ATP, carbon dioxide and water
More efficient than anaerobic

Color differences Muscles


The presence of pigment or color on
muscle protein called myoglobin that
can bind oxygen, and iron-containing
red lead to muscleRed and white
color differences occur due to
differences in the amount of
myoglobin and oxygen levels are
needed.The more myoglobin binds
oxygen, the more red muscle.