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BUILDING MATERIALS

SAND

SOUGATA DAS
LECT. in CE
Murshidabad Institute of Technology

SAND
Sandis a naturally

occurringgranularmaterialcomposed of finely
dividedrockandmineral particles.
the most common constituent of sand is

silica(silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the


form ofquartz.

SOURCES OF SAND
Sand is formed by the weathering of rocks.
Based on the natural sources from which
sand is obtained, it is classified as follows:
Pit sand
River sand
Sea sand

PIT SAND
This

sand

is
obtained
by
forming pits in soils.
It is excavated from
a depth of about 12
m
from
the
ground level.
This sand is found
as deposits in soil
and it consists of
sharp
angular
grains, which are
free from salts.

Pit Sand
It serves as an excellent material for mortar

or concrete work.
Pit sand must be made free from clay and
other organic materials before it can be
used in mortar.
A coating of oxide of iron over the sand
grains should be removed.

RIVER SAND
This sand is widely used for all purposes. It

is obtained from the banks or beds of rivers


and it consists of fine rounded grains. The
presence of fine rounded grains is due to
mutual attrition under the action of water
current.

River sand
The river sand is available in clean

conditions.
The river sand is almost white in color.

River sand

SEA SAND

This is obtained from sea shores.


It is brown in color and it also has the fine
rounded grain.

Sea sand

DREDGED SAND
DESPOSITION

Sea sand
As it is obtained from sea it contains salt,

which is used in attracting moisture from


atmosphere.
Such absorption causes dampness and
disintegration of work.
It is generally not used for engineering
purpose due to its retards setting action of
cement. It is normally used for non
structural purposes.

Crushed Stone Sand / Artificial Sand


It

is a substitute for River Sand, fine


aggregates
which
manufactured
by
crushing either granite or basalt rock using
3 stage crushing process.
This sand is manufactured in conformance
to IS Codes and is an effective alternative
to river sand.

CLASSIFICATION OF SAND
Based on the grain size distribution
Fine sand:The sand passing through a sieve with

clear openings of 1.5875 mm is known as fine sand.


Fine sand is mainly used for plastering. .
Coarse sand:The sand passing through a sieve with
clear openings of 3.175 mm is known as coarse
sand. It is generally used for masonry work.
Gravelly sand:The sand passing through a sieve
with clear openings of 7.62 mm is known as
gravelly sand. It is generally used for concrete work.

Grading of sand:
On the basis of particle size, fine aggregate

is graded into four zones.


IS Sieve

Percentage passing for


Grading Zone Grading
I
Zone II

Grading
Zone III

Grading
Zone IV

10mm

100

100

100

100

4.75mm

90 100

90 100

90 100

90 100

2.36mm

60 95

75 100

85 100

95 100

1.18 mm

30 70

55 90

75 100

90 100

600 micron

15 34

35 59

60 79

80 100

300 microns

5 20

8 30

12 40

15 50

150 microns

0 10

0 10

0 10

0 15

Sand for Construction Works


Different construction works require different standards of
sand for construction.
Brick Works: finest modulus of fine sand should be 1.2 to
1.5 and silt contents should not be more than 4%.
Plastering Works: finest modulus of fine sand should not be
more than 1.5 and silt contents should not be more than 4%.
Concreting Works: coarse sand should be used with finest
modulus 2.5 to 3.5 and silt contents should not be more than
4%.

PROPERTIES OF GOOD SAND


It should be clean and coarse.
It should be free from any organic or vegetable matter;

usually 3-4 per cent clay is permitted.


It should be chemically inert.
It should contain sharp, angular, coarse and durable
grains.
It should not contain salts which attract moisture from
the atmosphere.
It should be well graded, i.e., it should contain particles
of various sizes in suitable proportions.
It should be strong and durable.
It should be clean and free from coatings of clay and
silt.

Tests

To check the quality of fine aggregates or


sand; put some quantity of sand in a glass
of water. Then it is vigorously shaken and
allowed to settle. If the clay is present in
sand, its distinct layer is formed at the top
of sand.

To detect the presence of organic


impurities in sand, a solution of sodium
hydroxide or caustic soda is added to sand
and stirred. If the color of solution changes
into brown, it shows presence of impurities.

BULKING OF SAND
The increase in the volume of sand due to the presence

of moisture is known as bulking of sand. This is due to


the fact that moisture forms a film of water around the
sand particles and this results in an increase in the
volume of sand. The extent of bulking depends on the
grading of sand. The finer the material the more will be
the increase in volume for the given moisture content.
For a moisture content of 58 per cent, the increase in
volume may be about 2040 per cent depending upon
the gradation of sand. When the moisture content is
further increased, the sand particles pack near each
other and the amount of bulking is decreased. Hence,
dry sand and the sand completely flooded with water
have practically the same volume.

Deleterious materials in
sand
Sand shall not contain any harmful impurities such as iron,

pyrites, alaklies, salts, coal or other organic impurities,


mica, shale or similar laminated materials, soft fragments,
sea shale in such form or in such quantities as to affect
adversely the hardening, strength or durability of the
mortar. The maximum quantities of clay, fine silt, fine dust
and organic impurities in the sand / marble dust shall not
exceed the following limits:
(a)Clay, fine silt and fine dust when determined in
accordance within not more than 5% by mass in IS 2386
(Part-II), natural sand or crushed gravel sand and crushed
stone sand.
(b)Organic impurities when determined in color of the
liquid shall be lighter in lighter in accordance with IS 2386
(Part II) than that specified in the code.

references
http://theconstructor.org/concrete/joints-in

-concrete-structures/970/
http://www.wikihow.com/Make-Concrete