The Nature of Management

By Eng. Ahmed Bakhsh


process designed to achieve an organization’s objectives by using its resources effectively and efficiently in a changing environment.

 Managers
– – – –

make decisions about the use of resources and are concerned with
Planning Organizing Leading Controlling the organization’s activates

The Functions of Management



Activities to achieve the organization’s objectives


Recourses and activates to achieve organization’s objectives


The organization with qualified people


Employees activates toward achievement objectives


The organization’s activates to keep it on course

Where Planning Starts
 Objectives

The ends or results desired by the organization and are derived from the organization’s mission.

 Mission

The statement of an organization’s fundamental purpose and basic philosophy

Types of Plans

Strategic plans

Establish long-range objectives and overall strategy

Tactical plans

Designed to implement strategic objectives (usually one year or less)

Operational plans

Specify actions to achieve tactical plans (very short-term)

Crisis Management
 Contingency


Requires that managers plan for “when” rather than “if” a disaster occurs.

 Helps

create synergy  Establishes lines of authority  Improves communication  Helps avoid duplication of resources  Can improve competitiveness by speeding up decision making


Managers must ensure that the organization has enough employees with appropriate skills to do the work Managers must also determine:
– – – – –

What skills are needed for specific jobs How to motivate and train employees to do their assigned jobs How much to pay employees What benefits to provide How to prepare employees for higher-level jobs in the firm at a later date

 Motivating

and leading employees to achieve organizational objectives
 Recognition

and appreciation are often the best motivators for employees


Control involves five activates:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Measuring performance Comparing present performance with standards or objectives Identifying deviations from the standards Investigating the causes of deviations, and taking corrective action when necessary Correcting activities to keep the organization on course

Areas of Management
 Financial

management  Production and operations management  Human resources management  Marketing management  Administrative management

Skills Needed by Managers
 Leadership

skills  Technical expertise  Conceptual skills  Analytical skills  Human relations skills

Three Basic Styles of Leadership
 Democratic  Autocratic  Free-rein

Seven Tips for Successful Leadership
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Build effective and responsive interpersonal relationships Communicate effectively – in person, print, e-mail, etc Build the team and enable employees to collaborate effectively Understand the financial aspects of the business Know how to create an environment in which people experience positive morale and recognition Lead by example Help people grow and develop

Where Do Managers Come From?
 Good
– – –

managers are made, not born:

Promoting employees from the same organization Hiring managers from other organizations Hiring managers graduating from colleges and universities

Steps in the Decision Making Process
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Recognize and define the decision situation Develop options Analyze options Select best option Implement the decision Monitor the consequences

The Reality of Management

There are only two basic activates of management:


Figuring out what to do despite uncertainty, great diversity, and an enormous amount of potentially relevant information Getting things done through a large and diverse set of people despite having little direct control over most of them