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Human Resource

Management
TWELFTH EDITION

GARY DESSLER
BIJU VARKKEY
Part 2 | Recruitment and Placement

Chapter 6

Employee Testing and Selection

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

Why Careful Selection is Important


The Importance of
Selecting the Right
Employees

Organizational
Performance

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

Costs of
Recruiting and
Hiring

Legal
Obligations and
Liability

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Basic Testing Concepts


Reliability
Consistency of scores obtained by the same person

when retested with identical or equivalent tests.


Are test results stable over time?

Validity
Indicates whether a test is measuring what it is

supposed to be measuring.
Does the test actually measure what it is intended to
measure?

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

63

Types of Validity
Test
Validity

Criterion
Validity

Content
Validity

Face
Validity
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

64

How to Validate a Test


Steps in Test Validation
1

Analyze the Job: predictors and criteria

Choose the Tests: test battery or single test

Administer the Tests: concurrent or predictive validation

Relate Your Test Scores and Criteria: scores versus


actual performance

Cross-Validate and Revalidate: repeat Steps 3 and 4


with a different sample

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

65

TABLE 61

Testing Program Guidelines

1. Use tests as supplements.


2. Validate the tests.
3. Monitor your testing/selection program.
4. Keep accurate records.
5. Use a certified psychologist.
6. Manage test conditions.
7. Revalidate periodically.
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

66

FIGURE 64

Sample Test

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

Source: Courtesy of NYT Permissions.


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Using Tests at Work


Major Types of Tests
Basic skills tests
Job skills tests
Psychological tests

Why Use Testing?


Increased work demands = more testing
Screen out bad or dishonest employees
Reduce turnover by personality profiling
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

68

Computerized and Online Testing


Online tests
Telephone prescreening
Offline computer tests
Virtual inbox tests
Online problem-solving tests

Types of Tests
Specialized work sample tests
Numerical ability tests
Reading comprehension tests
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

69

Types of Tests
What Tests
Measure

Cognitive
(Mental)
Abilities

Motor and
Physical
Abilities

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

Personality
and
Interests

Achievement

610

FIGURE 65

Type of Question Applicant Might Expect


on a Test of Mechanical Comprehension

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

611

The Big Five


Extraversion

Conscientiousness

Agreeableness

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

Emotional Stability/
Neuroticism

Openness to
Experience

612

Work Samples and Simulations


Measuring Work
Performance Directly

Work
Samples

Management
Assessment
Centers

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

Video-Based
Situational
Testing

Miniature
Job Training
and
Evaluation

613

TABLE 62

Evaluation of Assessment Methods on Four Key Criteria

Assessment Method

Validity

Adverse Impact

Costs
(Develop/
Administer)

Cognitive ability tests

High

High (against minorities)

Low/low

Somewhat favorable

Job knowledge test

High

High (against minorities)

Low/low

More favorable

Personality tests

Low to
moderate

Low

Low/low

Less favorable

Biographical data
inventories

Moderate

Low to high for different types

High/low

Less favorable

Integrity tests

Moderate
to high

Low

Low/low

Less favorable

Structured interviews

High

Low

High/high

More favorable

Physical fitness tests

Moderate
to high

High (against females and


older workers)

High/high

More favorable

Situational judgment tests

Moderate

Moderate (against minorities)

High/low

More favorable

Work samples

High

Low

High/high

More favorable

Assessment centers

Moderate
to high

Low to moderate, depending


on exercise

High/high

More favorable

Physical ability tests

Moderate
to high

High (against females and


older workers)

High/high

More favorable

Applicant Reactions

Note: There was limited research evidence available on applicant reactions to situational judgment tests and physical ability tests. However,
because these tests tend to appear very relevant to the job, it is likely that applicant reactions to them would be favorable.

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

Source: Elaine Pulakos, Selection Assessment Methods, SHRM Foundation, 2005, p. 17. Reprinted
by permission of Society for Human Resource Management via Copyright Clearance Center.
614

Background Investigations and


Reference Checks
Investigations and Checks
Reference checks
Background employment checks
Criminal records
Educational qualifications
Credit checks

Why?
To verify factual information provided by applicants.
To uncover damaging information.
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

615

FIGURE 67
Reference
Checking
Form

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

616

Background Investigations and


Reference Checks (continued)
Former Employers

Current Supervisors

Sources of
Information

Commercial Credit
Rating Companies

Written References

Social Networking Sites


Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

617

Limitations on Background Investigations


and Reference Checks
Legal
Issues:
Defamation

Employer
Guidelines

Background
Investigations
and
Reference Checks

Legal
Issues:
Privacy

Supervisor
Reluctance
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

618

Making Background Checks More Useful


1. Include on the application form a statement for
applicants to sign explicitly authorizing a
background check.
2. Use telephone references if possible.
3. Be persistent in obtaining information.
4. Use references provided by the candidate as
a source for other references.
5. Ask open-ended questions to produce more
information from references.
Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

619

FIGURE 68

Handwriting of an Uptight Personality

Source:http://www.graphicinsight.co.za/writingsamples.htm#The

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

%20Uptight%20Personality%2, accessed March 28,


2009. Used with permission ofwww.graphicinsight.co.za.
620

Physical Examination
Reasons for preemployment medical
examinations:
To verify that the applicant meets the physical

requirements of the position.


To discover any medical limitations to be taken into

account in placing the applicant.


To establish a record and baseline of the applicants

health for future insurance or compensation claims.


To reduce absenteeism and accidents.
To detect communicable diseases that may be

unknown to the applicant.


Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd
Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

621

Substance Abuse Screening


Types of Screening
Before formal hiring
After a work accident
Presence of obvious behavioral symptoms
Random or periodic basis
Transfer or promotion to new position

Copyright 2011 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd


Authorized adaptation from the United States edition of Human
Resource Management, 12/e

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