JANTA SHIKSHANA SAMITIÑS

BANASHANKARI ARTS, COMMERCE, S.K GUBBI SCIENCE, (JOC) BBA / BCA & M.Sc (I.Sc) COLLEGE

VIDYAGIRI, DHARWAD ± 580 004

POWER TO YOUR HAND

A Presentation On

INTERNET

The Internet

Every machine transparently connected to every other

Internetworking : terms of art 
An Internet: A network of networks of computer

hosts able to seamlessly communicate usually through the Internet Protocol (IP) and services

Enterprise Internet: An Internet within an organization

Public Data Internet: Internet services made available to the public

The Internet: More than 2,00,000 Internets connected together

What¶s a protocol?
network protocols: ‡ all communication activity in Internet protocols define: governed by ± format and order of protocols

msgs sent and received among network entities, and ± actions taken on msgs transmission and receipt

What¶s a protocol?
‡ a human protocol and a computer network protocol:
Hi Hi
What is the time? TCP connection req.
TCP connection reply.
Get http://www.cs.uml.edu/index.html

2:00 time

<file>

WHAT IS THE INTERNET?
‡ The Internet is a global network of computer networks. Each of these networks contains anywhere from two to thousands of computers that are linked together using special rules called protocols. When computers are connected to the Internet they are able to communicate and share information

The Internet
‡ Inter = international ‡ Net = network ‡ a global collection of interconnected networks - a network of networks ‡ ³Mother of All Network´, ³Cyber Village´, ³Virtual Community´

HOW DID THE INTERNET START?
‡ The Internet began in the late 1960s as a network of computers that the United States Department of Defense developed using communication technology that could continue to function even when it was partially damaged. ‡ In the 1980s the National Science Foundation (NSF) used this same technology to create its own network (NSFNET), which allowed researchers to share data and access resources located on remote computers. ‡ Eventually many educational, governmental, commercial, and other organizations connected their own local computer networks to the NSFNET to form what is now known as the Internet.

WHO CONTROLS THE INTERNET?
The Internet is not controlled by any individual or group. Currently, a non-profit organization called the Internet Society (ISOC) elects a board that is responsible for managing the technology and direction of the Internet.

WHAT CAN I DO ON THE INTERNET?
‡ COMMUNICATE WITH OTHERS
± Electronic Mail (email)
‡ Using email you can exchange messages with other people around the world. You can also subscribe to electronic discussion lists and journals.

± Usenet Newsgroups
‡ Usenet is an informal network of computers that allows you to post and read messages in newsgroups that focus on specific topics.

WHAT CAN I DO ON THE INTERNET?
‡ TELNET
± Telnet allows you to log on to and use other computers that are connected to the Internet no matter where they are located. Telnet is commonly used to connect to library catalogs, community information systems, and fee-based database services.

‡ FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP)
± FTP allows you to transfer files to and from computers that are connected to the Internet. Files that are transferred using FTP can contain text, images, sounds, software, etc.

WHAT CAN I DO ON THE INTERNET?
‡ WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
± The World Wide Web allows you to access information on any computer, world-wide, that makes files publicly available using hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP). This protocol allows hypertext links between files on the same computer, or on other computers on the Internet.

‡ GOPHER
± Gopher also allows you to access files on the Internet. Because gopher sites do not allow graphical displays or hypertext linking, most of them are already replaced by World Wide Web sites.

What Is the Web?
‡ The World Wide Web is a collection of electronic documents that are linked together like a spider web. ‡ These documents are stored on computers called servers located around the world. ‡ The Web has evolved into a global electronic publishing medium and increasingly, a medium for conducting electronic commerce.

How the Web Works
‡ Web pages are stored on web servers located around the globe. ‡ Entering the (Uniform Resource Locator) URL of a web page in your web browser or clicking a link sends a request to the server which hosts the page. ‡ The server sends the web page to your computer and your web browser displays it on your screen.

What is an Web Page ?
‡ A web page (such as the one you are looking at now) is an electronic document written in a computer language called HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). ‡ Web pages can contain text, graphics, video, animation, and sound, as well as interactive features, such as data entry forms. ‡ Each page has a unique address known as a URL (Uniform Resource Locator), which identifies its location on the server.

What is an Website ?
‡ A website is one or more web pages that relate to a common theme, such as a person, business, organization, or a subject, such as sports. ‡ The first page is called the home page, which acts like an index, indicating the content on the site.
From the home page, you can click hyperlinks to access other web pages.

Using Web URLs
‡ ‡ URL (Uniform Resource Locator) indicates where the web page is stored on the Internet. You need to type a URL exactly for your browser to locate the desired web page.

‡ ‡

Some large websites have multiple URLs that access the same site The location box or address field on your browser indicates the URL of the page you arrived at after clicking a link.

Web Browsers
A web browser is a software program used to access the World Wide Web. A browser (also known as client software) retrieves data from remote web servers and displays a web page.

The two most popular browsers come from Netscape and Microsoft.

Browsers basically work the same way. Once you know one, you can easily learn the other.

Multimedia on the Web
Sound, video, animation, and 3D interactive video are referred to as multimedia. Some multimedia, called streaming media, plays as soon as you access a web page. Others require that you download the multimedia file to your computer first. Multimedia files often requires that your browser use a plug-in program.

PlugPlug-Ins
Plug-ins are small software programs that extend the capabilities of your browser by enabling it to play sounds and video clips or do other functions, such as automatically decompressing files that you download. Plug-ins may come with your browser software or can be downloaded from websites. Some plug-ins enable streaming audio or video, which lets you hear or view a multimedia file before it has completely downloaded to your computer.

Accessing the Internet
‡ Getting connected
± Connect from home, school, or business ± Requires an ISP ± Communications software ± Web browser

Levels of Internet Access
Direct Connection ±
leasing fiber optic cable or similar transmission media

Broadband Connection ±

Dedicated LeasedLine Connectio n ± by large

high-speed ³always on´ multi-signal connection, small to medium-sized organizations (cable, DSL, satellite) Dial-up Connection ± most common form of connection; ISDN: high-speed dial-up + digital phone

organization; entire LAN connected to the Internet

Making Connections

To go online your computer must be equipped with a modem, a device that translates the digital signals from your computer into analog signals that travel over a standard phone line.

Internet Service Providers (ISP)
‡ a company that provides Internet connection services to the general public to the Internet ‡ any online system that has direct Internet connection and provides access to it

About Modems
Modem stands for MOdulator/DEModulator.

Modems were invented to convert digital computer signals into a form that allows them to travel over phone lines.

DSL
‡ DSL (Digital Subscriber Line), a high-speed or broadband technology, has become increasingly popular. A DSL line remains connected to the Internet. ‡ Data is downloaded to your computer at rates up to 8 Mbps and you can send data at 4Mbps.

‡ DSL service requires a digital modem or a network card in your computer.

IP ADDRESSES
‡ Computers use IP addresses (e.g., 35.8.2.61) to identify and communicate with each other. ‡ These addresses contain four separate numbers that represent the general to specific location of a computer as you read them from left to right. ‡ You may sometimes see IP addresses but will rarely need to use them.

Internet Architecture
± IP Addressing (dotted quad) ± To identify hosts ± 140.186.81.6 = two parts: network 140.186, host PC 81.6 ± PC1.1 (140.186.81.6) and ± PC1.2 (140.186.2.3) = same network ± router needed for 2 PCs from different networks to talk e.g. PC1.1 to communicate with PC2.1 (140.185.1.1

Internet Architecture
‡ Domain Naming System
± user-friendly naming scheme (lettered IP address system) ± domain name server

‡ 3-letter zones = organization, 2-letter zones = country
edu ± educational institution mil ± military gov ± government net ± network com ± commercial org ± organization

‡ zones: organizational and geographic

Connecting to the Internet

Internet

HOW WE ARE CONNECTED TO THE INTERNET TO USE GLOBAL ACESS

NETWORKS
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ LAN equipment + resources facilitate access, transfer and distribution of data and information low cost high-speed data transfer office building, warehouse, campus, or any other facility WAN ‡ a bigger network = 2 or more interconnected LANs ‡ global companies/ agencies with common databases and information sharing needs

Internet: a network of networks accessible to anyone connected to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) with a PC, a modem and a telephone line.

J.S.S - BANASHANKARI ARTS, COMMERCE, S.K GUBBI SCIENCE, BBA / BCA & M.Sc (I.Sc) COLLEGE

Presented By ::Santosh M Shirodkar B.B.A IV sem Reg. No :- 08B11078 :-

J.S.S - BANASHANKARI ARTS, COMMERCE, S.K GUBBI SCIENCE, BBA / BCA & M.Sc (I.Sc) COLLEGE

Course : COMPUTERS II

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