Apply numerical methods to calculate the integration

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Apply numerical methods to calculate the integration

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AND

PARAMAGNETISM

Table of contents

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

Larmor Diamagnetism

Hunds Rules

Van-Vleck Paramagnetism

Curies Law of Free Ions

Curies Law in Solids

Adiabatic Demagnetization

Pauli Paramagnetism

Conduction Electron Diamagnetism

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: The Knight Shift

Electron Diamagnetism in Doped Semiconductors

Properties

Diamagnetic materials have a weak, negative susceptibility to

magnetic fields.

1. Diamagnetic materials are slightly repelled by a magnetic field

and the material does not retain the magnetic properties when

the external field is removed.

2. In diamagnetic materials all the electron are paired so there is

no permanent net magnetic moment per atom.

3. Diamagnetic properties arise from the realignment of the

electron paths under the influence of an external magnetic field.

4. Most elements in the periodic table, including copper, silver,

and gold, are diamagnetic.

to magnetic fields.

1. These materials are slightly attracted by a magnetic field and

the material does not retain the magnetic properties when the

external field is removed.

2. Paramagnetic properties are due to the presence of some

unpaired electrons, and from the realignment of the electron

paths caused by the external magnetic field.

3. Paramagnetic materials include magnesium, molybdenum,

lithium, and tantalum.

Diamagnetic

Paramagnetic

Susceptibility

1.Magnetization density

At T=0 the magnetization density M(H) of a quantummechanical system of volume V in an uniform magnetic field

H is defined to be:

the field H.

Hence, M(H) depend on the material.

E we have shorter formula:

rule:

2.The Susceptibility

The susceptibility is defined as:

dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the

degree of magnetization of a material in response to an

applied magnetic field.

General formulation

shifted:

E = E0n+En

The shift energy is component which make the characteristic of

material.

We find the shift energy is calculated:

all shells filled:

Larmor diamagnetism

The simplest application of above result is to a solid composed

of ions will all electronic shells filled. Such an ion has zero

spin and orbital angular momentum in its ground state :

field-induced shift in the ground state energy:

ions is given by:

susceptibility.

a partially filled shell

Hunds rules

To a good approximation, the Hamiltonian of the atom or ion

can be taken to commute with the total electronic spin and

orbital angular momenta, S and L, as well as with the total

electronic angular momentum: J=S+L.

The states of the ion can be described by quantum numbers L,

Lz, S, Sz, J and Jz which are eigenstates of the operators L2, Lz,

S2, Sz , J2, and Jz with eigenvalues L(L+1), S(S+1), Sz , J(J+1)

and Jz.

Since the filled shells have zero orbital, spin, and total angular

momentum, these quantum numbers describe the elesctronic

configuration of the partially filled shell, as well as the ion as a

whole.

4.2

Hunds First Rule

Out of many states one can form by placing n electrons into

the 2(2l+1) levels of the partially filled shells, those that lie

lowest in energy, have the largest total spin S ( that is

consistent with the exclusion principle.

Note: The largest value S can equal to the largest magnitude

that Sz can have.

If n2l+1, S=n: all electrons can have parallel spins without

multiple occupation of any one-electron level in the shell.

If n=2l+1, S=l+n: two electrons on a shell have opposite spins.

S is reduced form its maximum value by half a unit for each

electron after the (2l+1)th

The total orbital angular momentum L of the lowest-lying

states has the largest value that is consistent with Hunds first

rule, and with the exclusion principle. That value equal to the

largest magnitude that Lz can have.

When the shell is precisely half filled, all value of lz must be

assumed, and therefor L=0.

The second half of the shell is filled with electrons with spin

opposite to those in the first half, and therefor the exclusion

principle allows us again to go through the same series of

values for L we traversed in filling the first half.

The states of lowest energy can leave (2L+1)(2S+1) possible

states, according to this, total angular momentum J can take all

integral values between |L-S| and |L+S|.

The value J assumes in the states of lowest energy is:

5. Susceptibility of insulations

containing ions with a partially

filled shell:

Paramagnetism

5.1 If J=0

Consider the atoms with full the change of energy from ground

state. It mean that the shift of energy is given by:

volume, the susceptibility is

5.2 J0

We only consider the first term of energy because is much

greater than the other two

The ground state is (2J+1)-fold degenerate in zero field

Evaluating and diagonalizing (2J+1)-dimentional square matrix

contribute appreciably to the free energy. The above equation

shows that the first tem in the energy shift as expressing the

interaction (-.H) of the field with a magnetic moment that is

proportional to the total angular momentum of the ion.

Ions of Angular Momentum J:

Curies Law

appreciable probability, the free energy:

or

Larmor diamagnetic susceptibility.

When an ion of the shell to the total susceptibility of the solid

completely dominates the diamagnetic contribution from the

other (filled) shell.

Diamagnetic susceptibilities are of order 10-5

At room temperature, paramagnetic susceptibility should be of

order 10-2 to 10-3.

Curies law frequently writes as:

Thermal properties of

Paramagnetic insulators:

adiabatic demagnetization

Where U is internal energy

The magnetic entropy S(H,T) is given by:

temperatures only in a temperature range where the specific

heat of the spin system is the dominant contribution to the

specific heat of the entire solid.

Susceptibility of metals:

Pauli Paramagnetism

-B/V if its spin is parallel to the field H

B/V if antiparallel

If n is the number of electrons per unit volume, the magnetization

density will be:

If the electrons interact with the field only through their magnetic

moments, the shift energy of each electronic level by BH

The magnetization:

The susceptibility is

of conduction electron is essentially independent of temperature.

In the free electron case, the density of level has form:

There are also diamagnetic effects arising from the coupling of

the field to the orbital motion of the electrons.

The dependence of M on H doesnt average out to zero. There

is a net nonvanishing magnetization antiparallel to H, known

as the Landau diamagnetism

For free electrons:

semiconductors

Doped semiconductors is one kind of conducting material which

has conduction electron diamagnetism can be larger than

paramagnetism.

Consider the case in which the carries go into bands with spherical

symmetry, so that (k)=2k2/m*

This is proportional to m for free electrons, the Pauli susceptibility

of carriers will be reduced by m*/m ( 0.1 or smaller)

As a result:

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