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Th

e
Fi
ve
Se
ns
es

The Sense of Touch

The skin allows us to have the sense of


touch

What are the FUNCTIONS


of the SKIN?

Protection
Protects the
body from
infection,
injury, and
water loss.

Maintains body Temperature


helps us regulate body
temperature through
perspiration.
Without the nerve cells in
our skin, we couldn't feel
warmth, cold, or other
sensations.
Sweat- Cools off the body
Goosebumps- keep the
heat in.

Sense of Touch
The nerve endings in your skin can
tell you if something is hot, cold,
smooth or rough . They can also feel
if something is hurting you. Your
body has about twenty different
types of nerve endings that all send
messages to your brain.

What are the three layers


of the SKIN?

Epidermis
outer layer of our
skin,
It is the tough,
protective outer
layer.
It is about as thick
as a sheet of paper
over most parts of
the body.
Constantly flaking
off and being
renewed

Dermis

Middle layer of skin


The dermis contains.
1.Nerve endings-how things
feel
2.Blood vessels- carry blood
3.Oil glands- Produce Sebum
4.Sweat glands- produce sweat

Subcutaneous
Bottom layer
1. made mostly of fat
2. helps your body stay warm
3. absorb shocks
4. Each hair on your body
grows out of a tiny tube in
the skin called a follicle
5. Every follicle has its roots
way down in the
subcutaneous layer and
continues up through the
dermis.

The Skin
1. Epidermis
4. Oil Gland
2. Dermis
5. Sweat Gland
6. Hair

3. Subcutaneous

Nerves
7.

Blood Vessels
8.
Fat Cells 9.

Check your Worksheet

parts of the body give us our sense of t


Th
e
Se
ns
e
of
Ta
ste

Tong
ue

Brai
n

Nos
e

The Tongue
Tongue
The
- Tongue is the sense organ that detects
flavor.
ves
roooves
mmaannyyggro
face
oonnththeessuurrface

- Inside the grooves there are many taste buds which are
taste receptors.

Magnified
Papillae
taste
bud

sensory cell view of


Microscopic
taste buds (x100)

food
brain

Th
e
Se
ns
e
of
Ta
ste

What are the three functions of the


tongue?

Ea
t

Spee
ch

The tongue moves and pushes a


small bit of food along with
saliva into your esophagus,
which is a food pipe that leads
from your throat to your
stomach.

Tast
e
The top of your tongue is covered with a layer of
bumps called papillae
. Papillae help grip food and move it around while
you chew.
They contain your taste buds, so you can taste
everything.

Process to taste food


- Flavoring chemicals in food dissolve in the
saliva
- Stimulates the taste buds to send messages
to the brain.
- Messages are sent to the brain to give us the
taste of the food
sensory cell

chemicals
in food

- Humans have four kinds of taste buds.


- They can detect four kinds of tastes:
sweet, sour, salty and bitter.

- Each kind of taste buds is not evenly


distributed on the tongue.
Thus, certain parts of the tongue are
more sensitive to a particular taste
than the others.
bitter
sour

salty
sweet

Th
e
Se
ns
e
of
Ta
st
e

Areas of Taste on the Tongu

parts of the body give us our sense of S


Th
e
Se
ns
e
of
S
me
ll

Nos
e

Bra
in

How do
do we
we smell
smell ??
How
- Nose is the sense organ that detects smell.
- There are millions of smell receptors inside
our nose.

nasal cavity

What are the functions of the Nose?


The
Sense
of
Smel

Smell

Breathe

Taste

Brain

Magnify

nerve
nasal cavity

mucus lining
inside

sensory
cell
chemicals
in food

Process to smell food


- When we breathe, some chemicals enter our
nose
=> chemicals dissolve in the mucus
=> stimulate the smell receptors to produce
messages
=> These messages are sent to the brain to
give us the odor of the food.
Some chemicals in
the food diffuse
into the air.

We use both smell and taste to detect the


flavor of food.

Holding your nose can help take


away unpleasant taste of food.

Do you know ?
Why do warm foods have stronger flavor
than cold foods?

This is because when food is heated, more


chemicals in food diffuse into the air.

Some medicine is unpleasant to


take.
You can hold your nose while taking
the medicine. This helps take away
the unpleasant feeling.

Our tongue can only distinguish about 4


different tastes. But our nose can
distinguish about 4000
different chemicals.

Our nose can tell us not only the sweet


taste of ice-cream, but also whether
it is chocolate flavour or not.
Thus, when our nose is also used to sense
the food, the food tastes better.

Do you know ?

Why do the elders like to


take in food with strong
flavor?
Its too
too salty!
salty!
Its

This is because the


senses of smell and taste of
the elders are
weaker.

Food with strong flavor


tastes good to the elders.

parts of the body give us our sense of He


Bra
in

Ear

The Sense of Hearing

What are the three functions of the


Ear?

Balance
Hearing

The Sense of Hearing

Structures of
of the
the ear
ear
Structures

The OUTER EAR

Ear Lobe
________________: (pinna) Collects sound
waves
Ear

Canal
________________: sound waves pass through

Structures of
of the
the ear
ear
Structures

The MIDDLE EAR

Ear
________________:
thin membrane that
Drum
vibrates(
stretched across the ear canal)

Ossicles
________________:
three small bones which help carry the
sound waves (hammer, anvil, and stirrup)

Structures of
of the
the ear
ear
Structures

The Inner EAR


Cochlea
________________: coiled tube in the inner ear (snail shaped) filled
with liquid and hair like cells.

Semicircular
______________
__: three small tubes in the inner ear which control
Canal
your balance
Auditory Nerve
________________: carries impulses from the ear to the brain

How does it all work?


Sound Waves
1. ____________________
are collected in the outer ear.
Canal
2. Sound waves pass through ourEar
_________________
and
cause our ear drum to vibrate.
Vibrations
3. These _________________________
are sent to our inner
ear by the ossicles. (small bones in the middle ear)
Cochlea
4. The vibrations reach the ______________________.
The
fluid in the cochlea begins to move, this motion
results in the hair cells sending a signal along the
auditory nerve to the brain.
Brain

5. Our __________________ receives these impulses and


interprets them as a type of sound.

Ear Problems
Infection
1.____________________
in the middle ear are the
s
most common
ear problems. Germs from
colds in the nose or throat can spread through
the Eustachian tube in the middle and inner
ear.
2.Hearing loss and deafness- This can result
from injury, disease, birth defects, and very
Audiologist
loud noises.
___________________________: is someone who
is specially trained to test and help with the
problems related to hearing loss.

parts of the body give us our sense of S

Bra
in

Eye

The Sense of Sight

What is the function of the Eye?

Sight

The Sense of Sight

Structures of
of the
the eye
eye
Structures
Cornea

Optic
Cornea
Nerve
________________: Transparent coating which
covers the iris and the pupil at the front of
the eye.
Iris

________________: The colored part of the eye

Structures of
of the
the eye
eye
Structures
Cornea

Optic
Nerve

Pupil
________________: The opening at the center of the iris.
(hole)

Lens

________________: A clear part of the eye behind the iris

Structures of
of the
the eye
eye
Structures
Cornea

Optic

Nerve
Retina
________________:
The light-sensitive tissue lining
at the
back of the eye. The retina converts light into electrical
impulses that are sent to the brain through the optic
nerve)

Optic Nerve

________________: A bundle of more than one million

How does it all work?


Light Rays
1. ____________________
bounce off an object you are
looking at.
Cornea
2. Light then
enters through the outer part of the eye,
called the ___________________.
Pupil

3. Next, light rays go through an opening called the


_____________.
4. Light passes through the lens on its way toBrain
the back
of the eye.
5. The retina sees the world upside down, but the
___________ turns it right side up.

Eye Problems
Pinkeye
1. ____________________
It can cause redness, itching,
inflammation or swelling, and a clear or white, yellow,
or greenish gooey liquid to collect in the eyes.
Nearsighted someone can see stuff that's
2. ____________________
near, like a book, but has trouble seeing stuff that's
far away.
Farsighted

3. ____________________ someone can see stuff that's far


away, but has trouble seeing up close, like reading the
Astigmatism
print
in a book.
4. ____________________ A misshaped cornea or lens
causing objects to look blurry

Eye Care
ophthalmolo
1.Visiting an ____________________
(a
gist
medical doctor who
specializes in
examining, diagnosing, and treating
eyes)at least every 2 years
2.Wearing sunglasses
3.Wearing protective eyewear whenever
you play sports
4.Take breaks from the computer, video
games, or watching TV
1.staring for a long time can strain
your eyes.