Population and Economic Development

‡Resource can be classified into two categories-Natural resource and Human resource. ‡ By increasing human resource more and better economic progress can be achieved. ‡ The human resource required by a country is provided by its population. ‡ Birth rate, death rate, life expectancy and literacy are some of the factors of population.

Total number of people living in a country at a given time is called its population.

The study of population of a country can be made use of for the following purposes. ‡ To assess the availability of human resource needed for production. ‡ To estimate the required basic infrastructure. ‡ To estimate the requirements of products and services. ‡ To understand the social and cultural structure of a population. ‡ To compare with the population of other countries. ‡ To assess the quality of standard of living.

Annual Population Increase as Per 2001 Census
Countries China India US Indonesia Brazil Pakistan Russia Bangladesh Japan Nigeria Mexico Germany Vietnam Philippines Egypt Popu.(Millions) Rate of Increase(%) 1273 1033 285 206 172 145 144 134 127 127 100 82 79 77 70 0.9 1.7 0.6 1.7 1.5 2.8 -0.7 2 0.2 2.8 1.9 -0.1 1.4 2.2 2.1

Important Trends of population
China India Indonesia Pakistan Russia bangladesh Japan 1.7 1.7 2.8 -0.7 2.0 0.19

AGR(% ) BR
0.9 15.2 23.7 20.6 35.8 8.6 28.1 4.4

6.5 8.5 7.3 9.5 14.6 8.6 7.7

Life Expectancy (Males)
69 63 65 61 61 61 78

LIFE Expectancy (Females)
73 65 69 61 73 62 85

History of Population Growth
‡ There was long period of stationary growth until 1000 when world Population was 400 million. ‡ This was followed by slow growth till 1750 when it reached 750 Million ‡ This time population was kept low due to more Death Rates due to Famines, Plagues, poverty etc. ‡ After Industrial revolution it grew substantially

History of Population Growth(Contd.)
‡ In 1950 it reached 2.5 billion ‡ In 1985 it reached 5 billion ‡ Human mortality was now lowered but BR continued to increase due to technological Advancements. ‡ By 2000 population was 6 Billion. ‡ It took 1750 years to add 480 Million People and now it takes 6 Years,

‡ Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports over 15% of the world's population. China has a larger population. Almost 60% of Indians are younger than 15 years of age. About 70% of the people live in more than 550,000 villages, and the remainder in more than 200 towns and cities.

‡ Before 1650, it took 36000 years for population to get doubled, i.e 1400 generations , but now it takes 53 years i.e 2 generations. ‡ More than 3/4th of population lives in developing world. ‡ More than 40% of developing population is dependent upon working population. ‡ Demographic transition of population.

Causes of High Fertility in Developing Countries
‡ Malthusian Population Trap- Difference in growth in population and food supplies will make per capita income to fall to such a low level that a population can lead a life barely at subsistence level. ‡ Micro economic Household Theory of Fertility- Children are considered as a special type of consumer goods so that fertility becomes a rational economic response to the consumer demand for

‡ Children relative to other goods. ‡ Higher the income, greater demand for children ‡ Higher the net price of children, lower the quantity demanded ‡ Higher the price of other relative goods, greater qty. demanded ‡ Greater the strength of taste for relative goods, lesser qty. demanded.

Population growth - Reasons
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Poverty Superstitions Religious beliefs Illiteracy and ignorance Early marriage High fertility Increased birth rate Decreased death rate

Economic Problems
‡ Poverty and Unemployment
± Collapse of agricultural sector ± Decline of indigenous/traditional industries. ± Lack of industrial enterprises ± Inadequate development of service sector ± Lack of capital ± Lack of entrepreneurship ± Mechanisation Shelter/Housing Environmental problems Subordination of women

Dependency Rate
‡ Dependency rate is the percentage of people depending on those who are employed (below 15 years and above 60 years of age.)

Table showing %age of Population in Different age Groups

Age Group 0-14 15-59 Above 60 Yrs

%age of Total Population 58.70% 34.33% 6.97%

Population Policy
‡ To improve the economy of a country ‡ To maintain population suitable to the economy. ‡ To attain economic and social progress. ‡ To improve the standard of living. ‡ To improve education and health. ‡ To solve unemployment problem.

National Population Policy 2000This policy lays emphasis on health care of the people especially, that of women and children. Following are the aims of the Newpopulation policy. ‡ To meet the basic needs in public health sector. ‡ To ensure free and compulsory education to all children upto the age of 14. ‡ To reduce infant mortality rate below 30 in every 1000 live births. ‡ Popularise preventive measures against the communicable diseases ‡ To take steps for raising the age at marriage of women, above 20. There are commissions at the national and state levels to monitor and evaluate the implementation of the policies.

Issues related to population
‡ Will developing countries be able to improve levels of living given anticipated population Growth. ‡ How will developing countries be able to increase their vast increase in Labour force. ‡ How will higher popu. Growth affects Poverty. ‡ Will developing countries be able to Extend coverage and improve Quality of Health care and education in face of rapid Population growth

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