Chapter 16, Lesson 3

The Female Reproductive System


the pituitary gland produces hormones that cause these ova to mature • Ovulation • The process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each month 2 .000 immature ova • At puberty. pear-shaped organ that nourishes and protects a fertilized ovum until birth • At birth a female has over 400.Female Reproductive Organs • The system has several functions: – Producing female sex hormones – Storing eggs • Female gametes or ova (singular: ovum) • Ovaries – The female sex glands that store the ova and produce female sex hormones – Located on each side of the uterus • The hollow. muscular.

aka the birth canal 3 .8 – Cervix • Opening of the uterus – Uterus • Protects and nourishes a developing fetus – – – – – Urinary bladder Uretha Labia minora Labia majora Ovaries • Contain ova and produce hormones – Fallopian tubes • Ova travel from the ovaries to the uterus – Endometrium • Tissue that lines the uterus – Vagina • Passageway from the uterus to the outside of the body.Female Reproductive Organs • Figure 16.

where it attaches itself to the uterine wall. fetus remains in the uterus until birth 4 . blood thickens to nourish the zygote. enters the uterus. elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body • If the sperm is present in the fallopian tubes.Female Reproductive Organs cont. resulting in fertilization – Produce a zygote. • Ovum is released from an ovary and moves into one of the two fallopian tubes • A pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw in the ovum • Cilia helps to move the ovum in the fallopian tubes • Sperm enters through the vagina • Muscular. the sperm and ovum might unite. which moves through the fallopian tubes..

the thickened lining of the uterus.Menstruation • If pregnancy does not occur. called the endometrium. excessive exercise. breaks down into blood. and fluids • Cycle of Menstruation – The shedding of the uterine lining – The endometrium tissue pass through the cervix. and into the vagina – Most females begin their menstrual cycles between the ages of 10-15 – At first the period might be irregular but then should become more predictable • Endocrine hormones control the cycle • Stress. tissue. the opening to the uterus. poor nutrition. low body weight. and illness can influence your period 5 .

The Menstrual Cycle • Figure 16.9 6 .

Maintaining Reproductive Health • Bathe regularly • Have regular medical exams • Practice abstinence 7 .

medium. hard pressure 8 .Breast Self-Exam • • • • • One week after your menstrual cycle Look in the mirror using different views Tips of three fingers as memory pads Vertical patterns Light.

irritability. but serious bacterial infection caused by use of tampons • Use low absorbency and change them often 9 . mood swings.Female Reproductive System Problems • Menstrual Cramps – Sometimes occur in the beginning of a menstrual period – Light exercise and heat help to relieve them • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) – Caused by a hormonal change – Symptoms include: anxiety. depression. bloating. fatigue • Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) – Rare. weight gain.

and Ovarian Cancers 10 . pain. odor. Uterine.Infertility and Other Disorders • Endometriosis – Uterine tissue grows in the ovaries. or the lining of the pelvic cavity • Sexually Transmitted Diseases – Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) • Untreated STDs • Vaginitis – Discharge. itching. larger ones tend to be removed surgically • Cervical. fallopian tubes. or burning • Yeast infections • Ovarian cysts – Fluid filled sac on the ovary • Some may disappear on their own.