Opti on F .

4 Pl an t an d A ni mal Br eedi ng

F.4. 1 Def ine i nbr ee di ng, outbree di ng, i nter spe cifi c hybri diza tion , pol ypl oi dy and F1 hybr id v igou r.

Inbreeding – reproduction involving fusion of gametes produced by genetically unrelated individuals Outbreeding – reproduction involving the fusion of gametes produced by genetically unrelated individuals Interspecific hybridization – sexual reproduction between members of different species

Polyploidy – having more than two haploid sets of chromosomes F1 hybrid vigour – vigour due to high levels of heterozygosity (the gene for specific trait are different)

F.4.2 Ou tline one e xam pl e for eac h of the ter ms in F.4. 1.

• Self-fertilization in plants • Commonly used in domestic animals such as sheep, cattle, and pigs to strengthen desirable characteristics

• Done between breeding lines within the species or even between the species • Within species; short-horned cattle and black angus cattle were crossed to produce offspring with superior beef and rapid growth • Between species: horse crossed donkey to produce mule which is stronger and more resistant to disease • Between species: Macoun apple crossed with crab apple which produced the liberty apple which is similar in taste to the Macoun apple but more resistant to disease.

• Produces plants which are hardier, bigger, and more productive • Ex. Strawberries, daylilies, freesias,

F.4.3 Di scu ss th e ne ed to m ai ntai n th e bi odi versity of wi ld pl an ts o r an ci ent far m br eeds a r eserv oir of al leles wh ich ma y hav e futur e val ue.

• The growing human population relies on three plants (rice, corn, wheat) for more than half of its food • Potato Famine in Ireland: In 1800s Ireland relied on only a few varieties of potatoes for almost all its food. None were resistant to a fungus that spread quickly and in the 1840s more than 2 million people died of starvation

• Research is being done into possibilities of using wild plants to become new crop plants or to improve resistance to insects and diseases. • 1970s – rare species of wild corn plants was found in Mexico which is highly resistant to diseases and some animal pests. Luckily, it was discovered before it was wiped out.


F.4.4 Ex pl ai n, us ing whe at, mai ze or ri ce as an exam pl e, ho w pl an t br eedi ng pr ogram mes have led to an i mpro vem ent i n th e y ield of a cereal cr op.

• Cereal grass of Graminae family • Has been bred to produce hundreds of different varieties to:
– Increase yield – Improve range of climates in which the crop can be grown – Increase the ease with which the grain can be separated from the less useful parts of the plant

Three main species which are commonly used: • Triticum astivum – flour production for breads, cakes, and biscuits • Triticum durum – semolina and pasta • Triticum compactum – for the production of confectionery and biscuits

Wheat: history of domestication
Triticum monocuccum X Aegilops speltoides (2n eincorn wheat) (grass)

Triticum dicoccon (emmer) • Tetraploid wheat • Improved yield, threshing, and winnowing (separation of the grain)

Miracle rice - short stalks (minimizes loss by seed dropping) and disease resistant

F.4.5 Outl ine ho w ani mal br eedi ng pr ogram mes have led to an improv emen t in one of th e fol lowi ng : milk yi el d i n c att le, meat yi eld i n s heep or egg yi el d in p oultry.

Improvements have been achieved by improved feed, health, and breeding for increased milk production

• Originated in Asia • Aggressive in nature which made them suitable for exhibition fights

PRODUCTS OF CROSSBREED: • White plymouth – meat source • Leghorn – for egg production • Cornish – poor layer but produces good meat

traditional methods
• To ensure that original breeds are still farmed • To retain the diverse gene pool for future breeding

• Produces greater yields of saleable meat Intensive Methods: • Selective breeding • Improved feed • Use of growth stimulators • antibiotics