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AIRCRAFT ENGINES

Alberto Martínez
INDEX
1.- INTRODUCTION
2.- TYPES OF ENGINES
2.1.- Internal combustion engines
2.2.- Reaction engines
3.- FUEL
1.- INTRODUCTION

An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion
system for an aircraft that generates mechanical
power.

Aircraft engines are almost always either lightweight
piston engines or gas turbines.
2.- TYPES OF ENGINES

2.1.- Internal combustion engines
- In-line engine
- V-type engine
- Horizontally opposed engine
- H configuration engine
- Radial engine
- Rotary engine

2.2.- Reaction engines
- Turbine-powered
- Turboprop
- Turboshaft
- Turbojet
- Turbofan
- Rocket
2.1.- Internal Combustion Engines

Aviation as we know it began under the propulsion of aircraft
engines by cylinder (engine) and pistons, also called reciprocating
engines or reciprocating engines. Although there were other
methods and forms of propulsion, internal combustion engines
allowed a constant propulsion work, mainly operated by gasoline.
2.1.- Internal Combustion Engines

In-line Engine

This type of engine has
cylinders lined up in one row.

The greatest advantage of
an inline engine is that it allows the aircraft to be designed with a low
frontal area to minimise drag.

If the engine crankshaft is located above the cylinders, it is called an
inverted inline engine: this allows the propeller to be mounted high
up to increase ground clearance, enabling shorter landing gear.
2.1.- Internal Combustion Engines

V-type Engine

Cylinders in this engine are
arranged in two in-line banks,
typically inclined 60-90 degrees
apart from each other and driving
a common crankshaft.

The vast majority of V engines are water-cooled.

The V design provides a higher power-to-weight ratio than an in-line
engine.
2.1.- Internal Combustion Engines

Horizontally opposed engine

A horizontally opposed engine has
two banks of cylinders on opposite
sides of a centrally located crankcase.

The engine is either air-cooled or
liquid-cooled, but air-cooled versions
predominate.

Opposed engines are mounted with the crankshaft horizontal in
airplanes, but may be mounted with the crankshaft vertical in
helicopters.
2.1.- Internal Combustion Engines

Radial Engine

This type of engine has one or more
rows of cylinders arranged around a
centrally located crankcase.

Each row generally has an odd number
of cylinders to produce smooth operation.

Most radial engines have the cylinders
arranged evenly around the crankshaft,
although some early engines, had an
uneven arrangement.
2.1.- Internal Combustion Engines

Rotary Engine
Rotary engines have the cylinders in a circle
around the crankcase, as in a radial engine,
(see above), but the crankshaft is fixed to
the airframe and the propeller is fixed to the
engine case, so that the crankcase and
cylinders rotate.

The advantage of this arrangement is that a satisfactory flow of cooling
air is maintained even at low airspeeds.

However, the gyroscopic effects of the heavy rotating engine produced
handling problems in aircraft and the engines also consumed large
amounts of oil since they used total loss lubrication, the oil being mixed
with the fuel and ejected with the exhaust gases.
2.2.- Reaction engines

Reaction engines generate the thrust to propel an aircraft by
ejecting the exhaust gases at high velocity from the engine, the
resultant reaction of forces driving the aircraft forwards.

The most common reaction propulsion engines flown are turbojets,
turbofans and rockets.

In jet engines the oxygen necessary for fuel combustion comes from
the air, while rockets carry oxygen in some form as part of the fuel
load, permitting their use in space.
2.2.- Reaction engines
2.2.1.- Turbine-powered

Most of modern passenger and military aircraft are powered by
gas turbine engines, which are also called jet engines.

This type of engine uses a gas turbine to produce power along their
structure, to increase the power of the flow passing by them to get
their shunt power to move a mechanism (shaft).

Operation of these motors is simpler than reciprocating engines,
however manufacturing techniques, components and materials are
much more complex because they are exposed to high
temperatures and under very different operation points as altitude,
performance, speed internal mechanisms and parts life.
2.2.- Reaction engines
2.2.1.- Turbine-powered

Air is compressed by the fan blades as it enters the engine, and it is mixed
and burned with fuel in the combustion section. The hot exhaust gases
provide forward thrust and turn the turbines which drive the compressor fan
blades.

1. Intake
2. Low pressure compression
3. High pressure compression
4. Combustion
5. Exhaust
6. Hot section
7. Turbines Low and High pressure
8. Combustion chambers
9. Cold section
10. Air inlet
2.2.- Reaction engines
2.2.1.- Turbine-powered

Turboprop

Because gas turbines optimally spin
at high speed, a turboprop features
a gearbox to lower the speed of the
shaft so that the propeller tips don't
reach supersonic speeds.

Often the turbines that drive the propeller are separate from the rest of the
rotating components so that they can rotate at their own best speed.

A turboprop is very efficient when operated within the realm of cruise
speeds it was designed for, which is typically 200 to 400 mph (320 to 640
km/h).
2.2.- Reaction engines

2.2.1.- Turbine-powered

Turboshaft

Turboshaft engines are used primarily
for helicopters and auxiliary power units.

A turboshaft engine is similar in principle, but in a turboprop the
propeller is supported by the engine and the engine is bolted to
the airframe.

The rotor is connected to a transmission which is bolted to the
airframe, and the turboshaft engine drives the transmission.
2.2.- Reaction engines
2.2.1.- Turbine-powered

Turbojet

A turbojet is the simplest of all
aircraft gas turbines. It consists
of a compressor to draw air in
and compress it, a combustion
section where fuel is added and
ignited, one or more turbines that extract power from the expanding
exhaust gases to drive the compressor, and an exhaust nozzle that
accelerates the exhaust gases out the back of the engine to create
thrust.
2.2.- Reaction engines

2.2.1.- Turbine-powered

Turbofan
A turbofan engine is much the same
as a turbojet, but with an enlarged
fan at the front that provides thrust
in much the same way as a ducted
propeller, resulting in improved fuel-efficiency.

Bypass air flows through the fan, but around the jet core, not mixing
with fuel and burning.

The ratio of this air to the amount of air flowing through the engine
core is the bypass ratio. Low-bypass engines are preferred for military
applications such as fighters due to high thrust-to-weight ratio, while
high-bypass engines are preferred for civil use for good fuel efficiency
and low noise.
2.2.- Reaction engines
2.2.2.- Rockets

Rocket engines are not used for most
aircraft as the energy and propellant
efficiency is very poor except at high
speeds, but have been employed for
short bursts of speed and takeoff.

Rocket engines are very efficient only
at very high speeds, although they are
useful because they produce very large
amounts of thrust and weigh very little.
3.- FUEL
All aviation fuel is produced to stringent quality standards to avoid fuel-related
engine failures.

Aviation standards are much more strict than those for road vehicle fuel
because an aircraft engine must meet a strictly defined level of performance
under known conditions.

These high standards mean that aviation fuel costs much more than fuel
used for road vehicles.

Aircraft reciprocating (piston) engines are typically designed to run on aviation
gasoline. It has a higher octane rating than automotive gasoline to allow
higher compression ratios, power output and efficiency at higher altitudes.

Turbine engines and aircraft Diesel engines burn various grades of jet fuel.
Jet fuel is a relatively heavy and less volatile petroleum derivative based on
kerosene, but certified to strict aviation standards, with additional additives.
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