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Chap 10

Capacitors

Acapacitor(originally known

ascondenser) is apassivetwo-

terminalelectrical componentused to

storeenergyin anelectric field.

A Capacitor displays its total

characteristics

only when a change in voltage or current is

made in the circuit in which it exists.

Capacitors

A capacitor consists of twoconductors separated

by a non-conductive region called thedielectric.

The dielectric is just anelectrical insulator.

Examples of dielectric media are: glass, air,

paper,vacuum, and even a semiconductordepletion

regionchemically identical to the conductors

When there is apotential difference(voltage)

across the conductors, a staticelectric

fielddevelops across the dielectric, causing

positive charge to collect on one plate and

negative charge on the other plate.Energyis

stored in the electrostatic field.

The energy stored in a capacitor can be returned

to the system

Capacitor

A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained

and isolated, with no netelectric chargeand no

influence from any external electric field.

The conductors hold equal and opposite

charges on their facing surfaces,and the

dielectric develops an electric field.

An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single

constant value (capacitance C) and it is defined

as the ratio of charge Q on each conductor

to the voltageVbetween them.

This is the ratio of theelectric chargeon each

conductor to the potential difference between

them.

Capacitance

Capacitance is a measure of a capacitors

ability to store charge on its plates.

The higher the capacitance of a capacitor,

the greater is the amount of charge stored

on the plates for the same applied voltage.

A capacitor has a capacitance of 1 farad if

1 coulomb of charge ( 6.242 x 10^18) is

deposited on the plates by a potential

difference of 1 volt across its plates.

Fundamental charging circuit

At the instant the switch is closed:

electrons are drawn from the upper Plates of conducting

plate through the resistor to the positive material

terminal of the battery

There will be a

surge current at

first limited by the

magnitude of

resistance present

Air

The level of the flow gap

declines creating a

net positive charge

on the top plate.

Electrons are

replaced being The final

repelled by through This transfer of electrons continues result is a

the conductors on the until the potential difference across net positive

bottom plate the parallel plates is exactly equal charge on

to the battery voltage the top plate

CAPACITANCE

Capacitance is measured in Farads.

The capacitance is greatest when there is

a narrow separation between large areas

of conductor (calledplates)

The dielectric between the plates passes a

small amount ofleakage currentand also

has an electric field strength limit,

resulting in abreakdown voltage, while the

conductors andleads introduce an

undesiredinductanceandresistance.

Equations

Equation for Equation reveals that the greater the

Capacitance charge (Q) on the plates (on the

numerator of the equation), the higher

is the capacitance level (C) for the

same voltage

capacitance or applied Q = CV

voltage, the greater the

charge on the plates

plates

= volts/m

V (V/m)

d = volts (V) Distance between

= meters (m)plates

Effect of dielectric on the field

distribution between plates of a

capacitor

dipoles in the components

dielectric between the plates

of a capacitor with

a dielectric present

Relative permittivity (dielectric

constant) t of various

dielectrics

Dielectric Strength of

some dielectric materials

Example 10.1

a) If 82.4 x 10^14 electrons are deposited on the

negative plate of a capacitor by an applied

voltage of 60v, find the capacitance of the

capacitor.

1st find the number of coulombs of charge

as follow

= = 22

F

find the charge on the plates

Q = CV = (470F) (40V) = 18.8

mC

Capacitor Construction

Components are: conductive plates, separation,

and dielectric The smallest the distance between the

Larger plates permit and plates, the larger is the capacitance.

increased area for the Higher level of permittivity results in

stores higher level of capacitance

General equation for capacitance

Capacitance of a capacitor

with a relative permittivity

of r

material

air

Example 10.2

If each capacitor in the left column is charged to the type

appearing in the right column, find the new capacitance level, the

other factors remain the same

factor of 3area staged the

The

same

area & distance are the same, but a

dielectric of waxed paper was added

between the plates

Many changes

happening at the same

time

Example 10.3

a) Find the capacitance

b) Determine the electric field

strength between the plates if

450 V are applied across the

plates.

c) Find the resulting charge on each plate.

Example 10.3

1st convert the area and the

distance between plates to the SI

system

48v are applied across the plates

Example 10. cont

Q = CV = (28.8pF) (48V) =

1.38 nC

Types of capacitors

capacitoravailable in the market and their

characteristics and applications, range from

very small delicate trimming capacitors up to

large power metal-can type capacitors used in

high voltage power correction and smoothing

circuits

Capacitorsare often classified according to the

material used as the dielectric, with the

dielectrics divided into two broad categories:

bulk insulators andmetal-oxidefilms

(incapacitorsknown aselectrolytic capacitors).

Two general types of

capacitors

Fixed and variable

Fixed Variable

capacitors capacitors

In general for the same type of construction & dielectric, the

larger the required capacitance, the larger us the physical size

of the capacitor

Variable capacitors: a continuous variation of

capacitance is required for tuning transmitters, receivers

and transistor radios

Fixed Capacitors: is constructed in such manner that it

possesses a fixed value of capacitance which cannot be adjusted

& it is classified according to the type of material used as its

dielectric, such as paper, oil, mica, or electrolyte.

Capacitors

Types of electrolytic

capacitors

capacitor

Homework pg 428

Problem# 3, 5, 7, & 9

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