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SMPS FUNDAMENTALS

&
48V POWER PLANT

Presented By

Kishor Kumar
Deputy Manager-SMPS& CRC

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CONTENTS
General introduction
Why Power & Battery
Switched Mode Designs
Power Plants Building Block
Elements of Power Plant
Advantage of SMPS
Application of SMPS
Technical Specification
Protections
Types of Power Plant
Features of Power Plant

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Why Power & Batteries

WHY DO WE NEED POWER SUPPLY?

- AND WHY DO WE NEED BATTERIES?


Why Power & Batteries

1. PROVIDE A RELIABLE DC-POWER SUPPLY TO


TELECOM EQUIPMENT.

2. CHARGE THE BATTERIES.

3. MONITOR AND CONTROL THE SYSTEM TO ACHIEVE


A LONG LIFETIME AND MTBF (MEANTIME BEFORE
FAILURE) OF THE COMPLETE SUPPLY- AND BACK-
UP SYSTEM.

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WHY DC AND NOT AC POWER SUPPLY ?

A filter for all the noise (EMC, surges etc) present


on the AC power lines.
All telecom equipment (PABX, Base Stations,
Main Switches) have to operate when the AC
supply (mains) is absent.
The telecom equipment have to be supplied by
stored energy while the AC supply (mains) is
absent.
Batteries are today the cheapest and most
efficient way to store electrical energy, and can
only be charged by DC.

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WHY DC AND NOT AC POWER SUPPLY ?

A DC Power Supply System converts the AC power


to DC Voltage, to charge the batteries and to
supply the Telecom equipment (load) when mains
is present.

When the AC supply (mains) fails, the batteries


will supply the Telecom equipment (load) until the
mains supply returns.
The rectifier system will then recharge the
batteries.

The DC power supply will monitor and control the


system and provide alarms in case of failure.

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SWITCHED MODE DESIGNS

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BASIC THEORY AND CONCEPT OF SMPS TECHNOLOGY

SMPS Design
The design of the SMPS based power plants is based
on the following technique:
a) Two Stage Conversion SMPS: In these systems,
the conversion of AC to DC is accomplished in
two stages as shown in previous Fig ( Switch
Mode design ).

i) First Stage conversion:


The input AC voltage is directly rectified and
converter in high voltage DC.

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BASIC THEORY AND CONCEPT OF SMPS TECHNOLOGY

ii) Second Stage Conversion:

Rectified high voltage DC is stored in a capacitors.


High voltage DC is then converted in to a very high
frequency AC (20 KHz and higher).
Conversion of high voltage DC to high frequency AC
is achieved by means of very powerful and fast semi-
conductor switching devices.
High frequency AC is stepped down to the required
level by means of a small high frequency transformer.
Stepped down AC is rectified to DC of desired
voltage and filtered by means of high frequency
filters.

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For system
Output Voltage Regulation in SMPS Power Plants

Vo = K*Vin*D
Vo -is the required Output DC voltage,

Vin -is the high frequency stepped down AC


voltage

K -is a constant corresponding to the shape of the


waveform
and
"D" is the duty cycle.

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ADVANTAGE OF SMPS

Modular concept
Small size
Less weight
Higher efficiency
Wide Input Voltage range
Auto battery charging/discharging
Easy repair and maintenance

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APPLICATION OF SMPS

Due to better performance and advance


features, SMPS are now used in almost
every product e.g.
Telecom Power Plants

Medical equipments

Defense equipments

Domestic appliances

Highly sophisticated machines

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Power system building blocks

UPS
AC/DC
BATTERY
DC/AC
INVERTER AC
DC/AC LOAD
AC INPUT POWER
PROTECTION DISTRIBUTION
Control
AC switch Module
TELECOM
board
EQUIPMENT
RECTIFIER
#1
RECTIFIER
#2
LVBD
G
SURGE
PROTECTION RECTIFIER
#n
DIESEL BATTERIES
GENERATOR REDUNDANT
RECTIFIER
SYSTEM BATTERY
AC/DC DISTRIBUTION
The elements in a Power system

AC Switch The AC input to the power system is taken from the


board: switch board
Diesel The diesel generator is a small power plant that generate
generator: AC current. The generator is used as a standby power,
that will be connected when mains fail. The generator
can be connected manually or automatically.
AC input Circuit breakers for protection of individual rectifiers.
protection:
Surge Protection against surge and voltage spikes on the AC
protection: supply.
The elements in a Power system
DC rectifier The rectifier system converts the current from AC to
system: DC. The system consist of rectifiers and a control and
monitoring unit
Rectifiers: The rectifiers converts AC to DC.
DC
AC

Control and The control unit monitors all the essential parameters in
monitoring unit: the system (voltage, current and alarms). Parameters can
also be changed from the unit.
Power Fuses of circuit breakers for distribution of DC power to
distribution the telecom equipment.
The elements in a Power system

Batteries The batteries stores the energy for use when the AC
mains fail

LVBD Low voltage battery disconnect (LVBD) is used for


disconnecting the batteries before they are damaged due
to deep discharge.

Battery Fuses for protection of individual battery banks against


distribution: short circuit.

UPS Converts power from AC to DC and back to AC again.


The UPS usually have a small battery bank on the DC
side
Inverter Converts from DC to AC. Used for AC load that require
long battery backup.
CURRENT FLOW IN A SYSTEM

MAINS INPUT OK
LOAD SUPPLIED BY THE RECTIFIER SYSTEM
BATTERIES ON FLOAT CHARGE.

RECTIFIER TELECOM
AC
SYSTEM EQUIPMENT
INPUT

BATTERY
BANK

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CURRENT FLOW IN A SYSTEM

MAINS INPUT FAILED (ABSENT)


LOAD SUPPLIED BY THE BATTERIES
BATTERIES ARE DISCHARGING

RECTIFIER TELECOM
AC
SYSTEM EQUIPMENT
INPUT

BATTERY
BANK

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CURRENT FLOW IN A SYSTEM

MAINS INPUT OK
LOAD SUPPLIED BY THE RECTIFIER SYSTEM
BATTERIES ARE RECHARGING

RECTIFIER TELECOM
AC
SYSTEM EQUIPMENT
INPUT

BATTERY
BANK

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VOLTAGE SEQUENCE IN A DC POWER SYSTEM

Mains
U failure

53.5

Mains resume Charge Current


Limitation

Normal charge
current
43.2

Disconnect Voltage
(43,2 / 24=1,8v)

t
Float charge Battery discharge Battery recharge -w/current limitation

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CLASSIFICATION OF SMPS POWER PLANTS

a)Low capacity power plant Systems


( Single/three Phase, small telecom systems of rural
/semi urban, BTS )

25A , Ultimate Capacity 150/200A Indoor


25A , Ultimate Capacity 150/200A Outdoor
50A , Ultimate Capacity 450A Indoor
50A , Ultimate Capacity 450A Outdoor

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CLASSIFICATION OF SMPS POWER PLANTS

b)High capacity power plant Systems


( Three Phase, medium and large Transmission Centre)

100A , Ultimate Capacity 600A Indoor


100A , Ultimate Capacity 1000A Indoor
100A , Ultimate Capacity 1500A Indoor
100A /200A, Ultimate Capacity 3000A Indoor

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POWER PLANT CONFIGURATION

Distribution, Switching, Alarm, Control and


Monitoring(DSCA) unit

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DISTRIBUTION, SWITCHING, ALARM,
CONTROL AND MONITORING(DSCA) UNIT

Distribution and Switching unit


Termination of battery and load
The switching and interconnecting devices for
battery, load and input AC
Contactor for battery low disconnect and AC
input out of range.
Shunts for meters
Modules

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POWER PLANT CONFIGURATION

Control, Alarm and Monitoring unit

Microprocessor controlled
Remote supervision
Battery Monitoring
Battery Path current limiting

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
AC Input : Nominal 400V AC, Range-320-480V, 3 Phase.
220V AC, Range- 90-300V Single Phase
Frequency 48-52Hz.
DC Output : Float Mode-48 56V, Charge Mode-51 56V DC
Power factor : Near Unity.
DC Distribution : Custom configurable as per requirement.
LVD : Single, Two Stage (Optional)
Disconnect Voltage : 44.4V, reconnect 51.5V (settable)
Temp. Compensation : 3mV / degree Centigrade / cell.
Environment Spec. : Operating Temperature 0 50 degree centigrade,
Storage Temperature : -100C to + 600C.
Humidity : 95% Max.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Metering
AC Input Voltage,
System Current
Load Current
Individual Battery Current
System Voltage
Load Voltage
Individual Battery Voltage
Individual Module Current

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Alarms (Audio/Visual)
AC Input Abnormal
Load Over Voltage,
Load Under Voltage
Rectifier Fail
Mains on Battery Discharge
System Overload
Temp. Compensation Fail
Battery Fail/ No battery
Battery isolation.

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SURGE PROTECTION

Classified into four categories :

Class A- at building level

Class B- at stage I protection box

Class C- at stage II rack level

Class D- at stage III module level

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FUNCTIONS OF SURGE PROTECTORS
When surge strikes :
Class D first conducts and maximum 500V is
build up across it.
Class C conducts if Voltage reaches > 1500V.
Class B conducts if Voltage reaches > 4KV.
Minimum inductance required for correct co-
ordination for inductor between Class B & C is
15micro H & for inductor between class C &
class D is 5 micro H.

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BATTERY

SMPS PP feature for specific battery


requirement
(VRLA-Valve Regulated Lead Acid &
Conventional Lead Acid)
Auto float charge operation
Deep discharge prevention
Battery under voltage protection
Battery Health check(optional)

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TWO BATTERY BANK-1500AH

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SWITCHED MODE RECTIFIER MODULE 25A

25A Module 25A Module

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SWITCHED MODE RECTIFIER MODULE 100A & 200A

100A Module 200A Module

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LOW CAPACITY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM, 25A & 50A

SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS

The Rack Power System consists of:


-
Small size rack.

AC Distribution Module.

Monitoring & Control Module.

Load & Battery Termination


arrangement.

Switched Mode Rectifier Modules


of Capacity 25A/50A as Basic Power
module. INDOOR

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LOW CAPACITY POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM, 25A & 50A
SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS

The Rack Power System consists of:


-
Small Size rack for OUTDOOR

AC Distribution Module.

Monitoring & Control Module.

Load & Battery Termination


arrangement.

Switched Mode Rectifier Modules


of Capacity 25A/50A as Basic Power
module.
OUTDOOR

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ACDB PANNEL
SYSTEM ACDB

The Rack Power System consists of:-


AC INPUT TERMINAL

AC CONTACTOR.

AC Distribution -MCB for module.

AC HIGH & LOW VOLTAGE CUTOFF


Monitoring & Control Module.

SPD .

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LARGE CAPACITY RACK SYSTEM 48V, 1500A

SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS

The Rack Power System consists of:


-
750mm wide rack.

AC Distribution Module.

Monitoring & Control Module.

Load & Battery Termination


arrangement.

Switched Mode Rectifier Modules


of Capacity 100A as Basic Power
module.

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LARGE CAPACITY RACK SYSTEM

The Rack Power System consists of: -

19 Standard Rack.

AC Distribution Module.

Monitoring & Control Module.

Load & Battery Termination


arrangement.

Switched Mode Rectifier Modules of


Capacity 200A as Basic Power module.

DCDB. (Optional)

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LARGE CAPACITY RACK SYSTEM
SALIENT FEATURES

Modular Muti-rack Power systems using 100A/200A module.

AC Input Termination (Three Phase)

Near Unity Power Factor.

Near sinusoidal Input Current.

Provides efficiency better than 90% @ Nominal input voltage Full Load.

Micro Controller based efficient Monitoring and Control Module to monitor


system parameters providing extensive information on System Status and
Alarm Conditions.

Large Back lit Alpha numeric display Showing Load and Battery Voltage
and Currents and other system parameters.

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LARGE CAPACITY RACK SYSTEM

SALIENT FEATURES.

Detection and Indication of Alarm Conditions.

Battery Under Voltage Isolation

Temperature Compensation of battery Voltage

Battery Under Voltage Isolation

Temperature Compensation of battery Voltage

Battery charge discharge test.

Automatic Switchover from Auto Charge Mode to Float Mode and vice
versa.

High / Low AC voltage Disconnect.


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LARGE CAPACITY RACK SYSTEM
SALIENT FEATURES

High / Low AC voltage Disconnect.

Protected against Lightning Electromagnetic Impulse & other High


Surges
Protected against low voltage surges

RS-485 compatible.

Battery Health Check - Provision of monitoring cell voltage, current, trickle


current, conductance and temperature at a set periodicity (Optional).

Central remote monitoring & control for NMS (Optional).

Two stage Low Voltage Disconnect (Optional).

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ITI LIMITED & SMPS BASED POWER PLANTS

The Company is one of the leading manufacturers of


Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) based power sources
and has been catering to the telecom sector powering
connectivity across India for over two decades.

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HISTORY
TOT FROM ASCOM ENERGY SYSTEM,
SWITZERLAND 1995-1996 FOR GR-97& GR-
2001
TOT FROM M/s. ELTEK ENERGY SYSTEM,
GURGAON-2006-07 FOR GR-2005
TOT FROM M/s. EXICOM TELESYSTEM,
GURGAON-2008-017 FOR GR-2005 ,2010,
2014 & 2015
SUPPLY TO BSNL/MTNL/DEFFENCE-OVER 500
CRORES
SUPPLY IN PROCESS

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TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING CENTRE(TEC)

TEC function under Department of Telecommunication


(DOT), Government of India
Issue of Generic Requirements(GR),Interface
Requirements(IR),Service Requirements(SR) and
Standards for Telecom Products and services.
Field evaluation of products and systems

National Fundamental Plans

Support to DOT on technology issues

Testing & Certification of telecom product

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SMPS MANUFATURING
ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS ASSEMBLY

MACHANICAL ASSEMBLY

RACK WIRING & ASSEMBLY

CARDS & MODULE TESTING

INTEGRATION & SYSTEM TESTING

BURN-IN TESTING

QA & BSNLQA -TESTING

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ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS ASSEMBLY & TESTING

MATERIALS INPUT
PCB PREPARARTION & COMPONENTS
FORMING
KITTING
MANUAL COMPONENTS INSERTION
WAVESOLDERING
CARD TESTING
MODULE ASSEMBLY
MODULE TESTING

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RACK ASSEMBLY & TESTING

MATERIALS INPUT
RACK ASSEMBLY-MECHANICAL
WIRING
PANNEL ASSEMBLY
RACK ASSEMBLY- ELECRICAL
INTEGRATION & SYSTEM TESTING
BURN-IN
QA TESTING

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THANK YOU

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POWER PLANT-100A(14+1),1500A U/C

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