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GTI and ERC WAVE Quick Reference

Version 03-22-04
(contains instructions for naturally aspirated,
single cylinder, port injection, natural gas
operation)

Sponsors and Contributors


Chol-Bum Kweon and John Pratapas Gas Technology Institute
Randy Hessel University of Wisconsin-Madison, Engine Research Center

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 1
This document is based on Ricardos WAVE beginners tutorial for
an SI engine. The tutorial in the WAVEs on-line Help is excellent
and has many details that the modeler needs to know.

The purpose of this document is to provide a quick reminder on


how to perform the tasks described in the tutorial, without having to
search through the complete tutorial. It also provides a reminder of
the steps needed to build a model for a new engine system.

The links on the next page will bring you directly to instructions for
how to perform WAVE modeling tasks. The links are in
chronological order (building model elements, describing the
element characteristics, viewing results).

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 2
Introduction to system (slide 4) Pre-requesting System Time Plots (slide 48)
Define system units (slide 5) Pre-requesting Overlay Plots (slide 49)
Re-initializing initial conditions (slide 6) Pre-requesting Post-Processing Datasets (slide 50)
Convergence (slide 7) Running WAVE (slide 51)
Run Duration (slide 8) Output file descriptions (slide 52)
Fuel definition (slide 9) Running WavePost (slide 56)
Gaseous fuels (slide 10) Viewing Time Plots (slide 57)
Where to ending the cycle (slide 11) Adding Time Plots from Datasets (slide 58)
Entering a title (slide 12) Viewing Cycle Average Plots (slide 62)
Adding junctions (slide 13) Saving modified post-processing files (slide 63)
Adding ducts (slide 14)
Defining Ambients (slide 15)
Defining Ducts (slide 17)
Defining Orifices (slide 23)
Defining the engine (slide 24)
Defining valves (slide 31)
Defining the injector (slide 37)
Checking input (slide 43)
Pre-requesting Time Plots (slide 44)

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 3
Introduction
Single cylinder of natural gas engine Return
to link
slide
Port fuel injection
Orifice connecting ducts Orifice connecting ducts

Intake ductwork Exhaust ductwork

Ambient at intake Ambient at exhaust

Indicates that output is requested at these points

Required data for WAVE

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 4
Units
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slide

Simulation General Parameters

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 5
Re-initialize
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slide

Simulation General Parameters

Reinitialize Flowfield Between


Cases is generally turned off,
because final conditions for
converged case is generally closer
to initial conditions for subsequent
cases (temperatures, pressures,
species concentrations, etc).

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 6
Convergence
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slide

Simulation General Parameters

Convergence Detection usually turned


on so that simulation stops when
tolerance is reached, regardless of
whether specified duration has been
reached.
Velocity and pressure are calculated
for convergence. Wall temperature is
included when the conduction model
is used. Control tolerances are used
when control systems are used.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 7
Duration
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slide

Simulation General Parameters

Simulation Duration is set to 30


engine cycles. This means the
simulation will stop after 30 cycles,
unless Convergence Detection
Tolerance reached, which could make
the simulation stop sooner.
Units for simulation duration are in
seconds, until a cyclic process, like an
engine cylinder are place on the
canvas, at which time the units
automatically change to cycles.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 8
Choosing the Fuel
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slide

Simulation General Parameters

Pick the desired fuel and air


properties by selecting a fuel from the
Tag icon.
Properties define how the fuel and air
react as a function of temperature,
pressure and concentrations.
WAVE tracks five species by default,
fresh air, vaporized fuel, burned air,
burned fuel and liquid fuel
respectively.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 9
Gaseous Fuels
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slide

Gaseous Fuels

The methane oxidation reaction mechanism has been selected to


describe the end gas chemical reaction activities for natural gas
fuels. This is because natural gas contains over 90% of methane
and its reaction mechanism is relatively simple. A 2-step reversible
reaction mechanism was adapted and extended to couple with the
developed end gas thermodynamics model. This model is
described in Ho et al, (1996).

Ho S. Y., Amlee D. and Johns R. J.,


"A Comprehensive Knock Model for Application in Gas Engines",
SAE International Fuels & Lubricants Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, 1996.
SAE Paper No. 961938

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 10
Ending the Cycle
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slide

Simulation General Parameters

Always set End of Cycle Angle to


auto, unless modeling Variable Valve
Timing, in which case it should be set
to just after the latest possible Intake
Valve Closure timing for cylinder #1.

Click OK, as we are done with the


General Parameters Panel.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 11
Adding a Title
Simulation Title Return
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slide

A title is very important, as it identifies the particular case you


are simulating. The title gets placed on the canvas and is
output to various output files, which is important when
analyzing data.
Defined constants, like SPEED, can be used in the title and the
title is automatically updated when the constant is changed.
University of Wisconsin Madison
GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 12
Adding Junctions
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slide

Tools Junction Palette

Junctions are used to join ducts, represent engine


cylinders and model system elements that are
made up of volumes.

Select Junctions from the Junction Palette and


place them at the desired location on the canvas.
amb1 and amb2 represent the atmosphere in this naturally aspirated engine, orif1 and orif2
represent significant locations in the duct geometry and cyl1 represents the cylinder.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 13
Adding Ducts
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slide

Close the Junction Palette

Join the junctions with Ducts. Using the left mouse button, click and drag from the
pink connection point on the leftmost ambient junction, labeled amb1, to the left
connection point on the neighboring orifice junction, labeled orif1. This
draws/creates a duct between the two junctions. The leftmost ambient will be the
intake ambient and the rightmost will be the exhaust ambient. Connect the
remaining junctions following the L to R convention. Note that the orifice icons
disappear, because the default duct diameter is zero.

The recommended convention is to draw all ducts starting from the intake
and drawing towards the exhaust.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 14
Defining Ambients
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slide

Double click on leftmost ambient, which will be the intake.

Name the ambient in the ID text box.


The ambient pressure and temperature
are fine as they are for this example.
With Diameter = AUTO, the orifice
diameter where the duct meets the
ambient will be equal to the duct
diameter.
The Discharge Coefficient will be
calculated internally with the value of
AUTO.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 15
Defining Ambients
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slide

Select the Initial Fluid Composition tab.

Since this is an intake, assigning the


initial fluid composition to be all Fresh
Air on the Initial Fluid Composition tab
is appropriate.

Follow a similar process for the


rightmost ambient, except label it
exhaust.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 16
Defining Ducts
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slide

In this case there are four ducts. It is assumed that hardware measurements
have been made so that each duct can be defined similar to those
measurements in the above picture.

Minimally, a duct is defined by Left and Right Diameters, Length,


Discretization, and Initial Conditions, as will be outlined in the following slides.
University of Wisconsin Madison
GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 17
Defining Ducts
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slide

Double-click on the duct labeled duct1

The duct name is located in the ID text


box. Its left and right connecting
junctions are in the Connectivity text
boxes.
A schematic of what duct1 will look like
appears in the center section.
A box surrounds the three Duct Data
tabs of interest for this case.
Comments can be added by clicking on
the Edit button.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 18
Defining Ducts
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slide

Click on the Duct Data, then Dimensions tabs.

Enter the Diameters, the Overall


Length and Discretization Length as
shown in the figure.

See the manual, WKCSpecial


TopicsDiscretization for more
information on discretization.

Bend Angle is not drawn in the


schematic as it has no physical
meaning in a 1-D model, it is simply
used to calculate a pressure loss
based on the angle and bend radius.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 19
Defining Ducts
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slide

Click on the Coefficients tab.


Various coefficients are entered on this
panel. Zero is entered for the Friction and
Pressure Loss Coefficients, because these
port losses are already captured in the
discharge coefficient value.
The Heat Transfer Coefficient value is a
multiplier for the heat transfer calculated by
standard methods. A value of 1.0 is fine for
this example, but can be used as a tuning
factor for other cases.
By assigning Discharge Coefficients to auto
WAVE will be automatically calculate them
based on the diameter of the duct at the
relevant end and the diameter of the
neighboring duct/orifice

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 20
Defining Ducts
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slide

Click on the Initial Conditions tab.


Initial condition values can be found on the
port schematic from a few slides back.

Note that initial conditions of Pressure and


Temperature need not be extremely
accurate in an engine simulation as the gas
will quickly move through the system and
conditions will be re-calculated
frequently. The initial conditions as set will
be flushed out within the first few engine
cycles of the simulation.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 21
Defining Ducts
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slide

Click OK to complete the data entry for duct1, then enter data
from the schematic for ducts 2, 3 and 4.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 22
Defining Orifices
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slide

Double click on orif1, the leftmost orifice.


In the Orifice Panel you can change the
orifice name and the diameter. The auto
setting simply joins the connecting ducts,
using the duct diameters.

If a value less than the connecting ducts is


used and additional restriction is imposed.
Try this and see how the orifice icon
changes.

All orifices can be left at the default value of


auto. Click cancel to close the Orifice
Panel.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 23
Defining the Engine
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slide

Model Engine Geometry


The Engine General Panel is used to define
the engine. Four tabs are highlighted that
are used for every engine.

The inputs Configuration box are self


explanatory.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 24
Defining the Engine
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slide

The Friction Correlation text boxes specify


the constants used in the Chen-Flynn
friction correlation model for calculation of
friction mean effective pressure (see below).

When data is collected in the test cell, it can


be plotted and correlated using the Chen-
Flynn model so that FMEP may be
calculated at non-tested engine speed/load
conditions.

FMEP = ACF + BCF(Pmax) + CCF(rpm*stroke/2) + QCF(rpm*stroke/2)2


University of Wisconsin Madison
GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 25
Defining the Engine
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slide

Click on the Operating Parameters tab.


Reference Pressure and Reference
Temperature are used in the calculation of
volumetric efficiency for the engine. These
values may or may not correspond to the
ambient conditions of the dynamometer cell
when tests are performed (different
companies use different practices).

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 26
Defining the Engine
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slide

Entering values inside {} identifies them as


contstants. In this case, speed will be
defined as a constant, therefore its value
can easily be changed from case to case.

Enter {SPEED} as shown, and proceed to


the next slide.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 27
Defining the Engine
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slide

Simulation Constants Table


The value for the constant SPEED is
entered in the Constants Table as shown in
the figure to the right. The value for the
current case is 6000 rpm.

Click OK to close the pop up and the Engine


General Panel should appear as on the
previous slide.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 28
Defining the Engine
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slide

Click on the Heat Transfer tab.


The Woschni model in it original form
(1967), or modified form to compensate for
variaous loads (1990), is used to model in-
cylinder heat transfer.
Heat Transfer Surface Area Multipliers are
used when these surfaces are not flat, like
when there is a bowl in the piston, or to
account for valve recesses, pentroof
combustion chambers, etc.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 29
Defining the Engine
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slide

Click on the Combustion tab.


Two combustion models are available for SI
engines. The Profile model is used when
heat release data is available at particular
operating points and it is useful for general
testing of the model. The SI Wiebe model
simply uses an S-curve function that
represents the cumulative heat-release in
the cylinder.
For the SI Wiebe function, the Location of
50% Burn Point and the Combustion
Duration, which is defined by 10 to 90% of
total burn, must be entered.
The Exponent and Fraction of Charge to
Burn are in general satisfactory as is.

Click OK to save the settings.


University of Wisconsin Madison
GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 30
Defining Valves
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slide

Model Valves
The connections from duct2 and duct3 to
the cyl1 junction are assumed to be valves.
The blue connection from duct2 denotes an
intake valve and the red connection to duct3
denotes an exhaust valve.

Click the Add button on the Valve List panel.


On the Add Valve Panel that appears, select
the type of valve you are defining. In this
case, a Lift valve is selected.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 31
Defining Valves
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slide

Click the OK button on the Add Valve Panel.


In the Lift-Valve Editor panel that appears,
enter the Diameter, which is typically the
valve's inner-seat diameter (D), but if the
valve flow-coefficient data has been
provided in non-dimensionalized format,
whatever diameter measurement was used
to non-dimensionalize the data should be
entered here.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 32
Defining Valves
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slide

Click on the Edit Valve Lift Profile button.


The Profile Editor that appears. The SI
Engine Model tutorial explains many ways to
enter the valve profile data. For this case,
simply use a pre-existing file by clicking on
the Tag icon, then selecting SI1INT. The
valve profile appears in the graphics portion
of the window.

Lash, if not incorporated into the lift array


data already, should be entered as hot lash.

To locate the 0.0 Crank Angle of the Valve


Profile at the 330 Crank Angle of the engine
cycle, enter 330 in the Anchors Cycle text
box, and 0.0 in the Anchors Profile text box.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 33
Defining Valves
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slide

The Multipliers are used to multiply every


point in the valve array in either lift
magnitude or angle duration. These can be
parameterized (set as constants) to allow
variable valve lift and duration between
cases. The lift multiplier can also be
conveniently used to adjust the units of the
text file to the appropriate units for use in
the model.

Click on OK to save settings.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 34
Defining Valves
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slide

Click on the Edit Flow Coefficient Profiles


Valve coefficients help describe how
restrictive the valve is at different lift
positions. There are number of ways to
enter this data (see SI Engine Model
tutorial). For this case, click on the Tag icon
and select the CFTYP profile.

Click OK on Profile Editor and Lift-Valve


Editor to save settings.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 35
Defining Valves
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slide

Click on the Add button of the Valve List panel.

Similar to the Intake valve, add the exhaust


EXHAUST VALVE
valve using the data to the right.
Diameter 28 mm
When all done, click OK on the Valve List Lift Profile SI1EXH tag
panel to save your settings. Cycle Anchor 105 deg
Profile Anchor 0 deg
Duration Multiplier 1.0
Lift Multiplier 1.0
Lash 0
Rocker Ratio 1.0
Angle Type Crank
Coefficient Profile CFTYP tag

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 36
Defining Injectors
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slide

Right click duct2 Edit Injectors

In the Duct Injector Editor panel that


appears, injectors attached to duct2 can be
added, edited and deleted.

Click on the Edit Duct Injector Types button


to open the Duct Injector Type Editor (see
next slide).

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 37
Defining Injectors
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slide

Click the Add button to create an injector.

A proportional injector, which will inject fuel


to the fluid stream in order to make it match
a targeted air-fuel ratio, is the default. Other
types of injectors are available from the
Charateristic drop-down menu, but
Proportional will be used for this case.

On the Properties, enter the data for the


figure to the right. Note that the Liquid
Fractinon Evaporated After Injection must
be set to 0.0 for gaseous fuel injection.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 38
Defining Injectors
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slide

Click the Composition tab.

For natural gas injection, set the Vaporized


Fuel value to 1.0 and the other values to
0.0.

Click OK to save settings and close the


window.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 39
Defining Injectors
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slide

Click the Add button in the Duct Injector Editor.

This Add operation will add the injector to


duct2. Then, click on the Edit button to
assign the behavior to the injector that is
specific to this location. This will open the
Injector Editor panel.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 40
Defining Injectors
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slide

Click the Operating Point tab.

General information is listed at the top of the


panel. If more Injector Types were defined,
the appropriate type should be chosen from
the Injector Type drop-down menu.

WAVE requires Fuel/Air Ratio. This will be


supplied by defining a Constant for the
air/fuel ratio and performing a mathematical
operation on it, {1/A_F}. Define A_F similar
to the way the Constant SPEED was
defined. Enter a near stoichiometric value
of 17.3 for A_F.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 41
Defining Injectors
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slide

Click the Position tab.

Type 25 (mm) into the Distance from Left


End text field to move the injector to the
middle of the duct (alternatively, click and
drag the injector with the middle mouse
button).

Click the OK button to close the Injector


Editor and save the data.

Click the OK button again to close the Duct


Injector Editor panel and save the data.

The model is now completely defined!

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 42
Input Check
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slide

Click on the Run Input Check button on the toolbar

If you are not sure which is the correct button, hover the cursor over toolbar icons to
bring up tool tips and find the Run Input Check button.

The Input Check consists of the solver internally assembling the network and
initializing the gas state of every element within the model. If it can successfully
perform these tasks, the model is ready to run a full analysis in the solver.

When the Input Check is successful, the last item printed in the launched shell
window is the simulation title.

Standard output from the input check is printed to the shell but is also printed to a
file having the same prefix as the model file but with a .out extension. This .out file
will be created in the same directory as the .wvm file. If the input check was
unsuccessful, viewing this .out file may help you find problems.

Even if successful, take a minute to view the contents of this file.


University of Wisconsin Madison
GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 43
Pre-requesting Time Plots
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slide

Right click on duct2 and select Edit Plots.


Time Plot requests are made when the user
knows that the value of certain quantities vs.
crank angle will be needed for analysis. In
this case, Time Plots will be requested at
duct2, cyl1 and duct3. The graph icons
below these parts indicate that Time Plots
have been requested for them (see above).
Results will be taken from the last engine
cycle.

Click the Create Plot button to open the


Duct Plot List (see next slide).

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 44
Pre-requesting Time Plots
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slide

Select both PRESSURE (201) and TEMPERATURE (202).


Selecting multiple items can be done by
holding the shift key.

Click on the OK button to close the Duct


Plot List and add these plots to the Existing
Plots list in the Duct Plot Panel (see figure
on previous slide).

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 45
Pre-requesting Time Plots
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slide

The location along the length of the duct


from where plots should take their data is
specified under the Duct Locations region of
the panel. Locations are defined by a
normalized value from zero to one (L end of
duct is 0, middle of duct is 0.5, R end of duct
is 1).

Pressure and Temperature are scalar values


and are stored at the center of a given cell.
As there is only one cell in duct2, no location
needs to be specified. The time plots will
automatically be created at the 0.5 location
(half-way along the duct).

Click on the OK button to close the Duct


Plot Panel.
University of Wisconsin Madison
GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 46
Pre-requesting Time Plots
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slide

Right-click on the cyl1 junction and select Edit Plots.


Click on the Create Plot button to open
the Junction Plot List.

Click on the 110 LOG-LOG P-V PLOT


and click the OK button to close the list
and add the plot to the Existing Plots list
of the Junction Plot Panel.

No location within the junction needs to


be specified for the plot as there is only
one calculation point in a junction.

Click the OK button to close the


Junction Plot Panel.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 47
Pre-requesting System Time Plots
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slide

Click on the Simulation pull-down menu and select the Time Plot menu item.

This will open the Time Plot Panel


where plots can be created for the
engine system, as well as sensors,
actuators, and pins.

For this case, click on the 701 ENGINE


TORQUE plot and click the OK button
to close the list.

Click the OK button to close the Time


Plot Panel.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 48
Specifying Overlaid Time Plots
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slide

Right-click on duct3 and select the Edit Plots.


Here we will overlay temperature and pressure plots from
duct3 onto the plots of duct2.

The only plots in the Existing Plots list are the pressure and
temperature plots from duct2. This is because these plots
are allowed at duct3 as well.

With plot 201 highlighted, click on the Add Location button


to plot the pressure at duct3 on the same plot as duct2. Do
the same for plot 202 to add duct3 to the plot of
temperature in duct2.

Click on the Use All Locations button to request the plots at


the center of both cells in duct3 (locations of 0.25 and
0.75).

Click the OK button to close the Duct Plot Panel.


University of Wisconsin Madison
GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 49
Post-Processing Datasets
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slide

Simulation Postprocessing Output


Post-processing using dataset
allows output of particular types for
the entire system, rather than just
at specific locations, which can be
useful if you are not sure exactly
what data you will need to analyze.

By default, the Basic dataset is


selected in the Models drop-down
list. The Basic models are listed,
which are datasets grouped
together that are always available,
no matter which junctions or
physical models exist in the
simulation.
Using the Models drop-down list and the Available Datasets for each model, request the
Requested Datasets shown in the figure above. Click OK when done.
University of Wisconsin Madison
GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 50
Running WAVE
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slide

Run model in screen mode by clicking the toolbars Run Screen Mode button.
Screen mode runs the model at high priority while sending standard output to the screen.
Batch mode runs the model at reduced priority while sending standard output to the .out file
(batch mode is not discussed here).

When the simulation is complete, close the shell window.

WAVE can produce many output files. Click here to find a summary of output file names and
contents.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 51
.out File
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slide

Open the *.out file with and editor and proceed to the cyclic output section.
Row (1) gives an abbreviation for what each column of data is displaying. This information may be useful
for debugging purposes in simulations that fail during run-time.
Row (2) is a summary for Cylinder #1 during engine cycle 0, the start-up cycle (WAVE simulations, by
default, begin at IVC for cylinder #1 unless otherwise specified in the Simulation -> General Parameters
panel). Only Cylinder #1 will have results for engine cycle 0.
Row (3) is a summary of engine system performance for engine cycle 0.
Rows (4+) will be a summary of every individual cylinder in the system for each engine cycle followed by a
engine system summary for each cycle.
Starting at engine cycle 3, a line denoting auto-convergence conditions is printed to the output. When auto-
convergence conditions are satisfied, if the convergence detection was activated in the Simulation ->
General Parameters panel, WAVE will run two more engine cycles and then finish the case. This happens
regardless of whether or not convergence conditions are satisfied in the following two engine cycles.

The columns titles as labeled in row (1) relate to the lines summarizing individual cylinder
performance. They are, in order -- Cylinder Number, Engine Cycle (cumulative from start of case),
Timestep number (cumulative from start of case), Mass Airflow (kg/hr), Volumetric Efficiency, Exhaust Port
Temperature (K), Equivalence Ratio, IMEP (bar), PMEP (bar), Indicated Horsepower (hp), Indicated
Specific Fuel Consumption (g/kW-hr), Cylinder Pressure at IVC (bar), Cylinder Temperature at IVC (K), and
Trapped Fuel/Air Ratio at IVC. There also is much other data in the *.out file
that the user should become familiar with.
University of Wisconsin Madison
GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 52
.sum File
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slide

Open the *.sum file with and editor.

The .sum file is a simple ASCII text file that can be viewed using any text editor, but it
intended for use by the WavePost post-processor.

The .sum file contains a group of name=value pairs that detail the cycle-averaged results for
each case in the simulation. Cycle-averaged results are single-number values detailing
results that are calculated as an average over the entire last cycle in the
simulation. Examples include Torque, Power, and Fuel-Consumption (a list of what each
name in the .sum file equates to can be found in the REFERENCE LIBRARY, or simply click
here).

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 53
.wvd File
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slide

The *.wvd file is binary and can not be opened with an editor.

WAVE also will create a .wvd file. The .wvd file is a binary file (not legible in a text-editor)
written in Ricardo SDF (Standard Data File) format and is also intended for use by the
WavePost post-processor. Data for requested time plots and datasets are stored in the .wvd
file. If necessary, this data can be extracted by using either the SDFBrowser or the sdftoascii
command-line program, both installed with WAVE. The .wvd file also stores a copy of the
network layout and other key information for post-processing. This file is vital to running the
WavePost post-processor and should not be tampered with by editing, renaming, etc.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 54
.wps File
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slide

Opening the *.wps file is not necessary.

When any time plots are requested in WaveBuild, WAVE will create a .wps file at the end of
the analysis. The .wps file is also an XML format file that can be observed in any web
browser by changing the filename extension to .xml. It is simply a session file (template) for
the WavePost post-processor detailing what information to extract from the .wvd file for
requested time plots that are created during the WAVE simulation.

When WavePost is launched directly from WaveBuild, it will look in the working directory for a
.wps file with the same prefix as the currently loaded .wvm file in WaveBuild. If it exists, the
file is opened in WavePost and the .wvd and .sum files from the same simulation are
assumed to be the results set for analysis.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 55
Running WavePost
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slide

Launch WavePost by clicking on the WavePost button in the toolbar.

The requested Time Plots are listed in the


lower left window. Simply double click on
any of the plots to see them.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 56
Viewing Time Plots
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slide

Double click on the Pressure Plot.

Plots can be modified in a number of


ways by choosing for the various toolbar
menu items. Experiment with these
options.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 57
Adding Time Plots
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slide

Right click on the Time Plots folder and select Add Time Plot

Besides the pre-requested Time Plots, the


requested Basic and Valve Datasets also
contain variables for viewing.

The above action will bring up a new


window onto which the new variables can
be viewed.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 58
Adding Time Plots
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slide

Add Data

The Time Data Panel is divided into


various regions. The top half of the panel
identifies the Y variable to view and the
lower half the X variable.
From the Output Sets region, select the
desired .wvd file (there is only one in this
example), then the model Elements will
appear. Select the Element whose
variable you wish to view and the
accessible variables at that location will
appear. Then, select the Y variable of
interest.
In this example, the Valve Flow
Coefficient of Junction Cyl1 Intake was
chosen from the tutsi1ng.wvd file.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 59
Adding Time Plots
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slide

Select the X variable using the lower half


of the panel.

Here, a custom X was chosen by


selecting Custom, Edit, Junction Cyl1
Intake 1, then highlighting the VALVE:
LIFT OVER DIAMETER variable.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 60
Adding Time Plots
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slide

Time plots can also be added very quickly by right clicking on an element and following the
drop-down menu items till the variable of interest is found.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 61
Viewing Cycle Average Results
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slide

Mode Cycle Average, Tools Variable

This example shows cycle average


velocity every where in the network.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 62
Save-As Post-Processing File
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File -> Save As

If you modify the .wps file, as weve done


in this example, it is important to save
your work under a different name,
because WAVE will overwrite this file
every time it is run from the current
directory. Therefore, any changes youve
made to the .wps file for the current
simulation results will be lost next time
WAVE is run if the .wps file is saved
under the same name.

University of Wisconsin Madison


GTI - ERC WAVE Quick Reference
Engine Research Center
Guide, March 2004 pg. 63