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Objectives Day 1

Introduction to Linux
Introduction to Red Hat Enterprise Linux [ RHEL 4.0 ]
Installation of Red Hat Linux
Basic Fundamentals of Red Hat Linux
Using CLI and GUI shells
Using GNOME & KDE desktop shells
Using Virtual Consoles
Managing files and directories
Using Vim Editor

Introduction to Linux

What is Linux ?

A fully-networked 32/64-Bit Unix-like Operating System

Unix Tools Like sed, awk, and grep (explained later)

Compilers Like C, C++, Fortran, Smalltalk, Ada

Network Tools Like telnet, ftp, ping, traceroute

Multi-user, Multitasking, Multiprocessor

Has the X Windows GUI
Coexists with other Operating Systems
Runs on multiple platforms
Includes the Source Code

Where did it come from?

Linus Torvalds created it

with assistance from programmers around the world

first posted on Internet in 1991

Linux 1.0 in 1994; 2.2 in 1999

Today used on 7-10 million computers
with 1000s of programmers working to enhance it

Open Source Software

When programmers on the Internet can read, redistribute, and modify the
source for a piece of software, it evolves
People improve it, people adapt it, people fix bugs. And this can happen at
a speed that, compared to conventional software development, seems

How do you get it?

Download it from the Internet

From a Distribution (e.g.RedHat)
Linux kernel

X Windows system and GUI

Web, e-mail, FTP servers

Installation & configuration support

3rd party apps

Hardware support

Distribution Concept
Free Distributions
Fedora Core

Debian and Ubuntu



Many, many more

Commercial Distributions
Red Hat Enterprise


Yellow Dog

Why is it significant?

Growing popularity
Runs on multiple hardware platforms

Users like its speed and stability

No requirement for latest hardware

Its free
Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program, as you wish

Freedom 1: The freedom to study the source code and change it to do

what you wish
Freedom 2: The freedom to copy and redistribute the program when
you wish
Freedom 3: The freedom to distribute modified versions, when you wish

Introduction to

Red Hat Enterprise Linux [ RHEL 5.0 ]

Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Commercial Distribution
Enterprise-targeted operating system
Focused on mature open source technology
12-18 month release cycle
Versions available started from 2.1, 3.0, 4.0 now 5.0
Support available up to 24 x 7 coverage plans
Supports many processor architectures
Intel x86-compatible, Intel Itanium 2, AMD64, IBM PowerPC on eserver
iSeries and eServer pSeries and IBM Mainframe on eServer zSeries
and S/390

The Fedora Project
Red Hat-sponsored open source project
Focused on latest open source technology
Rapid four to six month release cycle
Available as free download from the internet
An open, community-supported proving ground for technologies which
may be used in upcoming enterprise products
Red Hat does not provide formal support for Fedora Project

Installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Sources of Installation
Hard Disk
NFS Server

FTP Server

HTTP Server

What is Boot loader ?

boot loader is the first software program that runs when a computer
starts. It is responsible for loading and transferring control to the
operating system kernel software. The kernel, in turn, initializes the rest
of the operating system

GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader), which is installed by default, is a very

powerful boot loader. GRUB can load a variety of free operating systems, as
well as proprietary operating systems with chain-loading (the mechanism for
loading unsupported operating systems, such as DOS or Windows, by loading
another boot loader).

You may install the boot loader in one of two places:

The master boot record (MBR) This is the recommended place to

install a boot loader, unless the MBR already starts another operating
system loader, such as System Commander. The MBR is a special
area on your hard drive that is automatically loaded by your computer's
BIOS, and is the earliest point at which the boot loader can take control
of the boot process. If you install it in the MBR, when your machine
boots, GRUB presents a boot prompt. You can then boot Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or any other operating system that you have
configured the boot loader to boot.

The first sector of your boot partition This is recommended if you

are already using another boot loader on your system. In this case,
your other boot loader takes control first. You can then configure that
boot loader to start GRUB, which then boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

What is SWAP Partition ?
swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data
is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the
data your system is processing.

Size of SWAP ?
At least 256 MB
Twice the amount of RAM on your machine
Swap should equal 2x physical RAM for up to 2 GB of physical RAM,
and then 1x physical RAM for any amount above 2 GB, but never less
than 32 MB.
SWAP can also used after the installation
Red Hat Enterprise Linux supports up to 32 swap files

Sample Partition Structure

Mount Point Size

/boot 128 MB
/ 2048 MB
/usr 2048 MB
/var 512 MB
/home 512 MB
SWAP Use recommended size

Steps to install RHEL

Boot your computer from bootable media

Start Installation
Language, Keyboard and mouse selection
Media selection if applicable
Disk Partitioning
Bootloader configuration
Network and firewall configuration
Authentication Setup
Package Selection
X server configuration

Let's Set it up......
Local Logins
Text-mode login at virtual console
Graphical login

Station1: Enter Your username

Password: Enter Your
password here

Virtual Consoles
Multiple non-GUI logins are possible through the use of virtual consoles
There are by default 6 available virtual consoles
Available through CTRL+ALT+F[1-6] ( here F is for Function Key )
If X is running, it is available as CTRL+ALT+F7

Using CLI and GUI shells

What is "the shell"?

The shell is a program that takes your commands from the

keyboard and gives them to the operating system to perform.
In the old days, it was the only user interface available on a
Unix computer. Nowadays, we have graphical user interfaces
(GUIs) in addition to command line interfaces (CLIs) such as
the shell.

Some Simple Commands
ls = list the files and directory
date = display date and time
cal = display calendar
clear = clear the screen
pwd = prints the name of current working directory
mkdir = creates the directory
rmdir = removes the directory
cd = changes the directory
cat = display the contents of file
rm = removes the files
cp = copy the files and directory
mv = move and rename ( files and directories )
touch = updates the file/directory time-stamps
less = pager command
more = pager command

What have we learnt ?
Introduction to Linux
Introduction to Red Hat Enterprise Linux [ RHEL 4.0 ]
Installation of Red Hat Linux
Basic Fundamentals of Red Hat Linux
Using CLI and GUI shells
Using GNOME & KDE desktop shells
Using Virtual Consoles
Managing files and directories
Day 1 Complete !!!

Thank You !!!