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Dr.Gurunadh Velidi

Upes,Dehradun

Introduction

• Turbomachinery is classified as all those

devices in which energy is transferred either

to or from a continuously flowing fluid by the

dynamic action of one or more moving blade

rows.

• The word Turbo or Turbinis is of Latin origin

and implies that spins or whirls around

essentially a rotating blade row.

The thermodynamic Variations

• Two main categories of turbo-machine are identified:

• Firstly, those which absorb power to increase the fluid

pressure or head (fans, compressors and pumps);

• Secondly, those that produce power by expanding fluid to

a lower pressure or head (hydraulic, steam and gas

turbines).

Incompressible Compressible

Fluid Fluid

Power Generating Hydraulic Turbines Steam/Gas/wind

Machines Turbines

Power Consuming Pumps Fan/blowers/

Machines Compressors

Fluid Dynamics of A Turbo-machine

A Turbo-machine

Multi Stage Hybrid Compressor

Static & Stagnation Scalars

AXIAL COMPRESSOR EXPLODED VIEW

7

HOW BLADES ARE ATTACHED

8

Classification : Flow Path

• In Turbomachinery, power is added to or

removed from the fluid by the rotating

components.

• These rotating components exert forces on

the fluid that changes both the energy and the

tangential momentum of the fluid

• Euler's Equation relate the changes in energy

to the changes in tangential momentum

• Consider the adiabatic flow of a fluid along

the CV. The fluid in a stream tube enters a

control volume at radius , with Tangential

Velocity

• The exit at

Axial Flow Compressor Analysis

• It finds its major application in large gas turbine

engines like those that power today's jet aircraft.

• The compressor is made up of two major

assemblies: the rotor with its blades, and the

casing with its stationary blades (called stators).

• This chapter investigates the relationships of the

desired performance parameters to the related

blade loading and resultant fluid flow angles.

a) rotor with blades, b) case with stators, and

• This most complex flow can be understood by

dividing the three-dimensional flow field into

three two-dimensional flow fields.

• The complete flow field will be the "sum" of

these less complex two-dimensional flows.

• The two-dimensional flow fields are normally

called the through flow field, the cascade field

(or blade-to-blade field), and the secondary

flow field.

• The most common method of obtaining

performance data for different blade profiles

is to run cascade tests.

• A set of airfoils of the desired blade shape is

mounted in a conditioned flow stream, and

the performance is experimentally measured.

Flow field about cascade.

Two-Dimensional Flow Through Blade Rows

• Depending on the design, an inlet guide vane (IGV) may be used to

deflect the incoming airflow to a predetermined angle toward the

direction of rotation of the rotor.

• The rotor increases the angular velocity of the fluid, resulting in

increases in total temperature, total pressure, and static pressure.

• The following stator decreases the angular velocity of the fluid,

resulting in an increase in the static pressure, and sets the flow up

for the following rotor.

• A compressor stage is made up of a rotor and a stator.

• The basic building block of the aerodynamic design of axial-flow

compressors is the cascade, an endless repeating array of airfoils

that results from the "unwrapping" of the stationary (stators) and

rotating (rotor) airfoils.

• Each cascade passage acts as a small diffuser, and it is said to be

well designed .

• The changes in fluid velocity induced by the blade rows are

related to changes in the fluid's thermodynamic properties

in this section.

• The analysis is concerned with only the flow far upstream

and far downstream of a cascade--the regions where the

flow fields are uniform.

• In the analysis that follows, two different coordinate systems

are used: one fixed to the compressor housing (absolute)

and the other fixed to the rotating blades (relative). The

static (thermodynamic) properties do not depend on the

reference frame.

• However, the total properties do depend on the reference

frame. The velocity of a fluid in one reference frame is easily

converted to the other frame by the following equation:

Consider the compressor stage made up of a rotor followed by a stator as shown in Fig.

The two efficiencies most commonly used are stage efficiency and polytropic efficiency.

Stage Efficiency:

The stage efficiency of an adiabatic compressor is defined as the ratio of the ideal work per

unit mass to the actual work per unit mass between the same total pressures.

polytropic efficiency

the ideal work per unit mass to the actual work per unit mass for a differential pressure

change

In the limit, as the pressure ratio approaches 1, the stage efficiency approaches the

polytropic efficiency.

The compressor polytropic efficiency is useful in preliminary design of

compressors for gas turbine engines to predict the compressor efficiency for a

given level of technology

For a calorically perfect gas, the static enthalpy rises in the equation become

static temperature rises, and the degree of reaction is

In the general case, it is desirable to have the degree of reaction in the vicinity of

0.5 because the rotor and stator rows then will "share the burden" of increasing

the enthalpy of the flow.

Cascade airfoil nomenclature and loss coefficient.

The airfoil angles of both the rotor and the stator can be calculated from the

flow angles, given the incidence angle and solidity for each. To obtain the exit

airfoil angle.

Losses in cascade airfoils are normally quantified in terms of the drop in

total pressure divided by the dynamic pressure of the incoming flow.

This ratio is called the total pressure loss coefficient and is defined as

The ratio of the stage work to rotor speed squared is called the stage loading

coefficient and is defined as

For a calorically perfect gas, the stage loading coefficient can be written as

Modem axial-flow compressors used for aircraft gas turbine engines have stage

loading coefficients in the range of 0.3-0.35 at the mean radius

The ratio of the axial velocity to the rotor speed is called the flow coefficient

and is defined as

The flow coefficients for modem axial-flow compressors of aircraft gas turbine

engines are in the range of 0.45-0.55 at the mean radius.

When the stage efficiency and polytropic efficiency are unknown, the stage

pressure ratio can be determined by using loss coefficients based on cascade

data and other losses.

The total pressure for a compressor stage can be written in terms of loss coefficients

of the rotor and stator ,

Noting that the total pressure loss of the rotor is based on the relative velocity, we

write

Design Process

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