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We will cover in this session/topic

 Definition of persuasion
 How does persuasion
occur?
 Yale Communications
Model
 Elaboration Likelihood
Model
 ! haw with her gentle persuasion is more powerful than
hor with his hammer. he one melts, the other breaks
into pieces.´
- Henry David horeau (1817-1862)
(American Essayist, Poet and Philosopher)

 !ew are open to conviction, but the majority of men are


open to persuasion´
- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)
(German Playwright, Poet, Novelist and Dramatist)
 (p to 3000 advertising messages a day!
 Include signs, flyers, scented ads, previews

 Blatant attempts include commercials


 We like to think that we are smart and thus immune
to their deceit ± but we are not

 Our news programs are evaluated on


entertainment quality
 Newspaper motto is !if it bleeds, it leads´
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] Efforts to change others¶ attitudes


through the use of various kind of
messages.
messages

] he art of persuasion is the art of


finding the best available means of
moving a specific audience in a specific
situation to a specific decision
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People make their


decisions based on
    

  

 
  


 
 


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[ Hovland, Janis, and Kelly are the main contributors.
[ Based upon research undertaken to support the (.S.
Army during WW-II
[ he question they investigated was:
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1. Source: Communicator properties


2. Content: Message properties
3. Medium: Channel properties
4. Receiver: Audience properties


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 Creditability
üExpert
ü rustworthy

 Appearance
üAttractiveness
üLikability
üSimilarity


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Message should appear to be neutral
Message should appeal to both
emotion and reason
Message should be mild to moderate
fearful and humorous
Indirect messages are more powerful
than the direct one
Message should give an alternative


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ü One-sided appeal ± Effective with people who already
agree.
ü wo-sided appeal ± Better with a contrary audience
± (se WEAKS RONG approach
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A Primacy Effect: Generally first is better, especially
when an immediate decision is to be made.
A Recency Effect: ime will fade this effect then the
most recent argument will become effective


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Getting people to agree to a small statement and
then escalating the request.


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Making an initial unreasonable request then
dropping the request to something the receiver
would accept.


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[ Active
‡ Participation
[ Passive
‡ Writing
‡ Listening
] 
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 $!It is more difficult for people to change


long-held attitudes.
 %  Lower self-esteem more
vulnerable to persuasive messages.
 ã

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A person¶s habitual level of
thoughtfulness.
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A theory suggesting that persuasion can occur in
either two different ways ± systematic vs.
heuristic processing, which differ in amount of
cognitive effort or elaboration they require.
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a Careful processing depends on
Processing capacity of information in 


high message  
in
message
Persuasive
message
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 depends on    
processing Heuristic    
capacity low processing of which trigger
information in heuristic processing
message
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    
 !It involves careful
consideration of message content and ideas

  

  
Attitude
change resulting from systematic processing of
information presented in persuasive messages.
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   
 !processing of
information in a persuasive message that
involves use of simple rules of thumb or mental
shortcuts
  
attitude change occur in
response to peripheral persuasion cues, often
based on information concerning the expertise
or status of the persuaders.

 "
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 We engage in systematic processing when:


[ Our motivation is high
[ Information processing capacity is high
[ If we have lot of information about the topic
[ Sufficient time
[ Issue is sufficiently important to us.
[ We believe it is essential to form
accurate view.
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 We engage in heuristic processing when:


 We lack the ability or capacity to process carefully
 We have little knowledge about the issue
 Motivation is low
 Issue is unimportant to us and has little effect on us.

 Advertisers, salespersons and


politicians prefer to push us in
heuristic modes of processing.
# ! 

 Reactance ± negative attitude change


 orewarning ± prior knowledge of persuasive
attempt
 Selective avoidance of persuasion attempts
 Actively defending our attitudes
( ! !
It¶s very important to use language that fits the audience you
are writing for and the purpose you want to achieve.
Inappropriate language uses can damage your credibility,
undermine your argument, or alienate your audience
he following sums up the aspects of language:
1. Levels of ormality (formal, semi-formal & informal)
2. In-Group Jargon (Any in-group or specialized language)
3. Slang and idiomatic expressions (words like „ 
 

 )
4. Biased language (prejudices or gender specific)
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] Establish your credibility


] rame your goals in a way that identifies
common ground with those you intend to
persuade
] Reinforce your positions using vivid language
and compelling evidence
] Connect emotionally with your audience
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1

1 Persuasion Case Study - Rocky Group 1, 2 & 3 Case Analysis - ppt
Mountain Mutual: Promoting
un or itness?
2 HBR Paper- How he persuaded Group 4 & 5 Article Review ± ppt.
his team to leap into future

3 Chinese Negotiation Group 6 & 7 Article Review ± ppt.

4 Negotiating with a Customer you Group 8 & 9 Article Review ± ppt.


can¶t afford to loose