What is individual behaviour? 

How do biographical characteristics affect individual behaviour? Role of ability in individual behaviour. 

³There¶s beauty in individual differences´

Individual behaviour
Both innate factors and Environmental factors affects our behavior. (Lewin, 1951)
B=f (P, E) where: B=Behavior P=Person (innate), and E=Environment

. gender. and marital status that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS Personal characteristics such as age.

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS Age Gender Marital status Tenure Dependent variables: I. Job satisfaction . Turnover IV. Productivity (Job performance) II. Absenteeism III.

. emotional. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive.ABILITIES Ability An individual s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. and cultural. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities. social.

strength.TYPES OF ABILITY Intellectual Ability 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Verbal Ability Numerical Ability Reasoning Ability Deductive Ability Memory Spatial Ability Perceptual Ability Physical Ability 1) Motor Skills (e. dexterity) 2) Physical Skills (e. endurance) .g.g. reaction time.

strength. and similar characteristics. . dexterity.PHYSICAL ABILITIES The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina.

Employee¶s Abilities ABILITY JOB FIT Job¶s Ability Requirements Management Selection Placement Training AND Rewards Ability-Job Fit using Human Resource .

LEARNING Learning-Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Learning (a)Involves change (b)Is relatively permanent (c)Is acquired through experiencing .

Learning is defined by the outward expression of new behaviors Focuses solely on observable behaviors A biological basis for learning Learning is context-independent .

Pavlov Operant Conditioning .THEORIES OF LEARNING BEHAVIOURISM Confined to observable and measurable behavior Classical Conditioning .Skinner .


S R A stimulus is presented in order to get a response: .

IVAN PAVLOV.S EXPERIMENT      Measured accurately the amount of saliva sectreted by a dog.noticeable salivation No food-salivation occrred .then show food.salivation on hearing bell Hear bell. Presented meat.only bell-no salivation Ring bell.

FOUR ELEMENTS        Unconditioned Stimulus(US)-meat Caused the dog to react in a specific way Unconditioned response(UR)-noticeable increase in salivation(whenever US given) Conditioned stimulus(CS)-the bell The object that initially does not bring the desired response Conditioned response(CR) A conditoned behaviour that the organism learns to produce .

THEORIES OF LEARNING Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Key Concepts Reflexive (unlearned) behavior Conditioned (learned) behavior Reinforcement .

Behaviour follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner People learn to associate stimulus and their response .Operant conditioning    Behaviour is a function of consequences.

Skinner¶s Learning Theory Conditioning stimulus-response (S-R) associations through reinforcement Shaping behaviour through selective reinforcement .

 Is an environmental event that follows a response .REINFORCEMENT Anything that increases the strength of the response and tends to induce repetitions of the behaviour that preceded the reinforcement.

Schedule of Reinforcement Fixed-ratio .

if+ve consequences-tend to do again -s .THEORIES OF LEARNING(CONT.) Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience. Key Concepts-Learning occurs in two stepsPerson observes how others act-acquires a mental picture-bears consequences Person acts out of certain image.

Bandura (1973) Learning takes place through observation and sensorial experiences Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery .Social Learning Theory (SLT) Grew out of Cognitivism A.

Reinforcement process.exhibit modeled behaviour if rewards occur and vice versa well the individual remembers the model's action Motor reproduction process...     Attentional process-when people recognize and pay attention-they learn.Four Processes to determine the influence. Retention process. Individual performs the modeled activities.Observation turns into action.

Negative reinforcement Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs. .TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT Positive reinforcement Providing a reward for a desired behavior. Extinction Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation. Punishment Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior.

Five Step Problem-Solving Model a) Identify critical behaviors b) Develop baseline data c) Identify behavioral consequences d) Develop and apply intervention e) Evaluate performance improvement .BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION OB Mod The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.

. not absence. Self-management Reduces the need for external management control. Developing Training Programs OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness.Organisational Applications Well Pay versus Sick Pay Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance. Employee Discipline The use of punishment can be counter-productive.

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