Chapter 2
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À
î Convolution and related operations are found in many
applications of engineering and mathematics.
M
p
ÑConvolution is a central concept in relating the
time & frequency domains.
ÑDiscretetime convolution is a method of
finding the 
linear
timeinvariant (LTI) systems.
ÑThe system impulse response is [ .
ÑIf the input is [ ½ a unit sample at the origin
= 0½ the system response is [ .
ÑIf the input is [0 [ ½ a scaled impulse at the
origin½ the response is [0 [ .
ÑIf the input is the shifted impulse [l [  1 at
1 the response is [l [  1 .
ÑThe response to the shifted impulse [ [  at
is [ [  .
Ñ÷ince input [ is a sequence of samples½ it can
be described by a sum of scaled & shifted impulses:
]
ÑÕy superposition½ the response to [ is the sum
of scaled & shifted versions of the impulse
response:
a
ÑIt is called O
.
ÑThe expression for computing a[ is called the
.
ÑThe arguments of & can be interchanged
without affecting the result.
§
ÑThus½
a
`
À
p
ÑThe procedure for analytical convolution can be
implemented if [ & [ are described by simple
analytical expressions.
Ñdesort a table of closedform solutions for finite
or infinite series.
Ñ[ & [  are functions of the summation
variable
ÑThe summations frequently involve step functions
of the form [ & [  .
ñ
Ñ÷ince [ = 0½ 0 & [ 
0½ ½ these
can be used as lower & upper limits (
0 &
).
Ñ©xample 2.1
ÑLet [ = [ = [ .
ÑThen [ = [ & [  = [ .
ÑThe lower limit on the convolution sum simplifies
to = 0 (because [ = 0½ 0)½ the upper limit to
(because [  = 0½ )½ and we get
a 1 1 1
0 ×
ÑAany of discrete convolution properties are based
on LTI.
ÑIf [ or [ is shifted by ½ so is a[ .
ÑThus½ if a[ = [ [ ½ then
*
Ñùor causal systems ([ = 0½ 0) & causal
signals ([ = 0½ 0)½ a[ is also causal. Thus½
a
0 0

Ñ
I) Line up [ below [
II) Line up with each sample of [ the product of
the entire array [ with that sample of [ .
III)÷um the columns of the (successively shifted)
arrays to generate the convolution sequence.
]
Ñ©xample 2.2
ÑAn ùId filter has an impulse response given by
[
1½ 2½ 2½ . ùind its response a[ to the
input [ = 2 ½ 1½ . Assume both [ & [
start at
0
Ñ÷olution
Ñ[
2[  [  1 + [  2 & tabulates the
response to each impulse & the total response as
follows:
§
[ = 1 2 2
[ = 2 1
O O
2[ 2[ = 2 4 4 6
 [
 1  [
 1 = 1 2 2 
[  2 [  2 = 6 6 9
÷um= [ ÷um= a[ = 2 10 9
`
a
+ 1
= + 4 1 = 6.
a[ = 2 ½ ½ ½ 10½ ½ 9
a[ = 2[ + [  1
+ [  2 + 10[ 
+ [  4 + 9[ 
ñ
ù
ÑConvolution sum can be interpreted as:
Ñùold [ & shift [ to line up its last element
with the first element of [
Ñ÷uccessively shift [ (to the right) past [ ½
one index at a time½ & find the convolution at each
index as the sum of the pointwise products.
ÑThis is called the O.
×
Ñ©xample 2.
Ñùind the discrete convolution of [ = 2 ½ ½ 0½
4 and [ = 4 ½ 1½ by using the sliding strip
method.
Ñ÷olution
Ñ÷ince both sequences start at
0½ the folded
sequence is:
Ñ[ = ½ 1½ 4 . Using the sliding strip method:
*
2 0 4
1 4 È ÷ O
×
a[
2 0 4
1 4
2 20
a[
M
2 0 4
1 4
1 0 16
a[
2 0 4
1 4
0 4
a[
M
2 0 4
1 4
12
a[
MM
u
ÑThe discrete convolution of two finitelength
sequences [ & [ is equivalent to
multiplication of two polynomials whose
coefficients are described by [ & [ .
Ñ©xample 2.4
Ñùind the discrete convolution of [ = 2 ½ ½ 0½
4 & [ = 4 ½ 1½ by using the polynomials
multiplication method.
M
Ñ÷olution
Ñ[ = 2 + 2 + 0 + 4 = 2 + 2 + 4
Ñ[ = 42 + 1 + = 42 + +
Ña[ = [ [
= (2 + 2 + 4) ( 42 + + )
a[ = × + 24 + 6 + 204 + + 12 +
162 + 4 + 12
a[ = × + 224 + 11 + 12 + 4 + 12
Ñwence½ a[ = × ½ 22½ 11½ 1½ 4½ 12
M]
ö
M§
Ñ[ = 2 ½ 0½ ½ 0½ 0½ 0½ 4
Ñ[ = 4 ½ 0½ 1½ 0½
Ñ[ = 26 + 4 + 4
Ñ[ = 44 + 2 +
Ña[ = [ [
= (26 + 4 + 4) (44 + 2 + )
Ña[ = ×10 + 22× + 116 + 14 + 42 + 12
Ñwence½ a[ = × ½ 0½ 22½ 0½ 11½ 0½ 1½ 0½ 4½ 0½ 12
M`
Mñ
M×
ÑThe regular convolution of two signals½ both of
which are periodic½ does not exist.
Ñùor this reason½ periodic convolution is measured
by using averages.
ÑIf both [ and [ are periodic with identical
period ' their periodic convolution generates a
convolution result a[ that is also periodic with
the same period '
ÑThe O
or
a[ of [ and [ is denoted by:
a[ = [ $ [
M*
Ñ;ver one period (
0½1½ ...½'  1)½ it is defined by:
a $ $
' 1 ' 1
a
0 0
Ñ The linear convolution of one period of [ and
[ will have (2'  1) samples.
Ñ Its length is extended to 2'½ slice it in two halves
(of length ' each)½ line up the second half with
the first & add the two halves to get the periodic
convolution.
Ñ ©xample 2.6
Ñ ùind the periodic convolution of [ = 1 ½ 0½ 1½
1 and [ = 1 ½ 2½ ½ 1 with the period of '
= 4.

0 1 2 4 6
[ 1 2 1
[ 1 0 1 1
1 2 1
0 0 0 0
1 2 1
1 2 1
a[ 1 2 4 4 4 1
a[ = 1 ½ 2½ 4½ 4½ ½ 4½ 1
M
0 1 2
a[ = 6 ½ 6½ ½ 4
ÑTo find the periodic convolution½ we shift the
folded signal [ past [ ½ one index at a time½
& find the convolution at each index as the sum of
the pointwise product of their samples but only over
a oneperiod window (0½ '  1).
Ñalues of [ and [ outside the range (0½ ' 
1) are generated by periodic extension.
Ñ;ne way to visualize the process is to line up [
clockwise around a circle & [ counterclockwise
(folded). ]
Ñ©xample 2.7
Ñùind the periodic convolution of [ = 1 ½
2½ and [ = 1 ½ 0½ 2 with the period of ' =
using the cyclic method.
§
p
ÑCorrelation is a measure of similarity between
two signals and is found using a process similar to
convolution.
ÑCorrelation is the convolution of one signal with a
folded version of the other.
ÑThe discrete crosscorrelation (denoted ) of [
and [ is defined by:
1
ë ë
ë
ë 2
0 0 12
]