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σ = F/A , ε = ΔL/L₀ =L1 - L₀ /L₀ .

Yield – Strain increases without increase in stress


E = σ/ ε
Secant Modulus – Ratio of stress to corresponding strain
Poisson’s Ratio – Transverse Strain (Contraction) / Longitudinal Strain (Elongation)
Resilience - Energy given upon recovery from deformation / Energy req. to produce
deformation
Resilience – Area under stress-strain curve upon yield point
Toughness – Extend to which the material absorbs energy
Toughness – Area under stress – strain curve
Plasticity – Permanent Deformation without rupture.
Polymer molecules are at rest in random fashion.
While loading stretching and bending of interatomic bonds take place, on releasing stress
deformation is recovered instantaneously
Soft & Weak – Low mod, yield st. (PTFE)
A-C – Stress α strain Hard & Brittle – High mod, low elongation
upto C deformation is recoverable (Phenolic)
D – Yield point – Stretching takes Hard & Strong – High mod, high US (POM)
place Soft & Tough – Low mod, low yield st, high
D – E Strain hardening (cold elongation (PE)
hardening) Hard & Tough – High mod, high yield st,
high elongation (PC)
Tensile Strength
• Maximum stress sustained by a material when tensile load is applied
• ASTM D 638
• UTM – Load cell and extensometer to record elongation & test load
• Low speed for rigid material & high speed for flexible material.
• M/Ced specimen has low strength compared to molded specimen as it may
contain surface flaws, stress conc. Points at edges
• Specimen should fail by 1-5min.
• Speed A – 1mm/min±50%
• Speed B – 50mm/min±20%
• Speed C – 50mm/min±10%
• Speed D – 1000mm/min±10%
• Speed E – 500mm/min±10%
Compression Strength
• Ability of a material to resist crush or compression
• ASTM D 695
• Specimen – Cylindrical or rectangular block
• 12.7 x 12.7 x 25.4mm
• In case of thin sheets specimens joint by suitable adhesives
• Fixture - Anvil
Flexural Strength
• Cross breaking strength / bending strength
• 3 point loading – 0.01mm/mm.min
• 4 point loading – 0.1mm/mm.min
• Ability of a material to withstand bending forces applied perpendicularly
• ASTM D 790
• Specimen – 12.7 x 12.7 x 6.4 , loading nose radius – 3.2mm
• Span length – 16 x thickness
• R = Zl2/6d | R – rate of cross head motion, l – span length, d-thickness , Z-rate
of strain of entire fiber (mm/min)
• V = H/2 | H – Thickness, V –speed of loading
• For 4 point loading R = 0.21Zl2/d
• Test terminated when the max strain at outer fiber reaches 0.05mm/min,
usually will break
• Flexural Strength = 3PL/2bd2 | P – Load, L – distance of support, b-width, d-
depth, Y – deflection in mm
• Flexural modulus = FL3/4bd3Y | F -Load
Impact Strength
• Ability of a material to absorb applied energy or ability to resist fracture
under shock loading (J/m or kg.cm/cm)
• Ratio of impact strength of un-notched specimen to that of impact strength
of notched specimen is known as notch sensitivity.
• ASTM D256
• ASTM D1909 – Dart impact on film
• ASTM D5420 – Falling weight on flat specimen
• Energy to break = energy to deform + initiate + propagate the fracture
• Purpose of notch is to concentrate stress in small region & to promote
brittle fracture rather than ductile fracture.
• Izod – 64.5 x 12.7 x 3.2
• Charpy – 127 x 12.7 x 3.2
• Notch – 2.54mm
Shear Strength
• Ability of a material to resist shearing when one portion is moved
from a stationary section
• ASTM D732
• 50 x 50 x 0.125mm to 12.5mm
• 7/16 inch diameter @ center for shear tool
• Shear Strength = Max. load at which material is sheared / sheared
edge area
Hardness
• Resistance of a material to indentation/penetration
• In case of Thermosets hardness is high if cured properly
• ASTM D 785 – Rockwell hardness test method
• ASTM D 2240 – Durometer Hardness
• ASTM D 2583 – Indentation hardness of rigid plastic by barcol
impressor
• Rockwell hardness – measure of depth of impression as long on
indicator increases from a fixed minor load to a major load and then
return to minor load. It is not the measure of total indentation but
measure of non-recoverable indentation after major load applied for
15 seconds followed by minor load for 15 seconds.
• Different Scales – R,L,M,E,K – indenter size, major load, dial size
• Min thickness – 6mm
• Distance of indenter from edge – 3mm
R 10 kg 60 kg 12.7±0.0025
L 10 kg 60 kg 6.35±0.0025
M 10 kg 100 kg 6.35±0.0025
E 10 kg 100 kg 3.175±0.0025
K 10 kg 150 kg 3.175±0.0025

Durometer – Shore A, Shore D


A – Soft mtrl
D – Rigid mtrl
Barcol – for reinforced and non-reinforced rigid mtrls. Frustrum cone
indenter of 26’
Indenter – Made of hardened steel