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CHINESE CIVILIZATION

HISTORY

•The Yellow River valley is said to be the Cradle of Civilization, as this
is where the earliest Chinese dynasties were based. Chinese civilization
then spread out over a vast area and went to change the entire world.

•The civilisation of ancient China grew up on the river banks of Yang-
Tse-Kiang, Hwang-ho and Si-Kiang. The geography of China separated
it from other countries of the world for a long time. The Pacific Ocean in
the east, the vast Tibetan plateau in the west desert, Tien Shan and
Mongolian plateau in the north and the great Himalayas and the forest of
Brahmadesh in the south had separated China from the outside world for
a long time. The Chinese civilisation flourished being uninfluenced by
any external impact.

2500-1500 BC 1500-1000 BC 100-500 BC

500-200 BC 30-100 BC

750-979 AD

TIMELINE .

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CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT .

C. 1500-1100 B. • Written laws • Building projects (Great Wall of China) Han Dynasty Han • 400 year rule Wudi • Exploration (Zhang Qian) • Expansion of trade • Silk Road • Merit-based appointments . • Developed superior weaponry and technology Shang Dynasty 30 separate • Ruled from a succession of seven different capitals.E. kings • Invention of writing Zhou Dynasty Kings + • Expansion 1122-256 B.C.C. Noblemen • Regional rulers Qin Dynasty Qin • Centralization of authority 221-206 B. Chinese Dynasties and Their Achievements Notable Dynasties Achievements Rulers Xia Dynasty Aryans • Migrated into the area and conquered the locals 2100-1800 B.E.E.C.E.

•Pottery was made of fired-clay moulds for casting bronze. tombs at same locations cited in chinese hisotrical text. •Excavations reveal bronze implements. •Founded by a rebel leader who overthrew the last Xia ruler. Ceremonial weapons were made of Jade.XIA DYNASTY •The first prehistoric dynasty from about 21st cnetury until 16th century B. •Jade carving became advanced. in addition to hunting and animal husbandry. •Timber houses were built over rammed earth with walls (wattle and daub method) and roof of thatch.Pictographs. . It was similar to the present system. •Clay moulds were used to imprint decorations. •Also called Yin dynasty. Ideograms and Phonograms. • 3 characters used . CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT •There were 2 classes . •Was based on agriculture. SHANG DYNASTY •Dated back roughly from 1700 to 1027 B.C.Nobels and labourers(chief labour was agriculture) •The calender system was developed.C. the earliest of the writings in China.

the borders of their kingdom swelled and they were able to maintain control over the people they conquered effectively.1046 . •As they did so. • It commenced at a time of when the numerous petty citystate kingdoms of the •Spring and Autumn period had been consolidated into seven major contenders and a few minor enclaves. •Zhou dynasty would become the longest lasting dynasty in the chinese history lasting over 800 years. rearranging the affairs of the kingdom. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT •The Zhou set up a new economy. •It tool over the rule by defeating the Shang Dynasty. •The Warring States period is usually interpreted as a time of endless brutal wars that came as a result of friction among the seven states and that this unfortunate state of affairs could end only with one state bringing all into one empire . WARRING STATES •The period of the Warring States (Zhanguo or ChanKuo) refers to the era of about 475 BCE to 221 BCE.ZHOU DYNASTY •Zhou dynasty ruled China for almost a millennium. .256 BCE.

•Made peasants work as slaves in building roads. most famous of them beign the Great • Wall of China.QIN DYNASTY •(221 B.C. • canals.which is an extension of four walls. and consolidated a new empire •Capital located at Xianyang •Imposed harsh laws. •The imperial system intiated in this period lasted for two • milennia.writing and • language. bridges. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT •Standardized currency. to 206 B. burned all books except the useful ones on medicine and agriculture.system of measurement •Irrigation projects and works •Terra cotta army •Road network expanded •Multiplication table made . tolerated no criticism.C) the first dynasty to unify the country by conquering the warring feudal states of the late Chou period • King Cheng took the title Shih Huang-ti in 221 B. •Also called an autocrat •Qin wanted everything to be under his direct authority and control. levied heavy taxes. buildings.C.

Han dynasty emerged. •Capital was in Chang'an. they were largely unaware of what advancements were taking place in the nations around them. Baghdad etc was found due to expansion towards the west.HAN DYNASTY •After a short civil war. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS •Paper and porcelain were invented in this period. •It retained Qin dynast's administrative structure •Centralized rule was removed. China was isolated from much of the rest of the world. •This period has China's most famous historian Sima Qian. •Peace was made with non chinese local powers but tributes and intermarriages at ruling level and periodic exchange of goods and gifts.the path of caravan traffic which exported goods across central Asia. •It was called silk route as it exported Chinese silk to the Roman Empire. As their civilization flourished and their wealth increased. •Silk route. . •Because of its location amidst high mountains and surrounded on many sides by water.

•They set up a number of Government Institutions.THE THREE KINGDOMS •The period after the Han dynasty was very violent and lead to a lot of boundaries in the state. . •There was a big fight for power with the two kingdoms – Shu and Wu. SUI DYNASTY •China was once again unified under the Sui dynasty in 580 AD. •Rebellions rose in the whole empire and finally the Sui dynasty fell. •The battle between these three kingdoms is legendary. the authority passed to a general. •The kingdom of wei defeated the others but was later itself defeated by Jin. •They also planned to build up a unified canal system. •In the north.

•By the middle of the eighth century A. •There were a lot of battles against Barbarians and Tribes. pottery and buddhism. •This period is known as the Golden Age of the Chinese History..D. . Tang power had ebbed. •Trade along the silk route expanded. high poetry. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT •A system called three equal field system was established. •A Golden age for paintings. TANG DYNASTY •The Tang dynasty ruled China for about 3 centuries.

(now constitutes the provinces of the Northeast region (Manchuria) and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China) •Created a dual government to rule their conquests -southern government:which ruled the Chinese parts of the empire -northern government:(set up on a tribal basis)ruled over the nomads of the Inner Asian steppes •Had a border war with the Song for control of North China. Jin dynasty (1115–1234) established rule over North China Liao dynasty came to an end. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT •Trade of crops •Iron industry was developed •Porcelain wares(most famous among chinese porcelain) •Commercial activities between cities because of development of handicrafts and agriculture .LIAO DYNASTY •Formed by the nomadic Khitan tribes.eventually settled in 1004 with the Song dynasty agreeing to pay an annual tribute to the Liao •Juchen defeated the Song and.

. industry. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT •The Song dynasty is notable for the development of cities not only for administrative purposes but also as centers of trade. gun powder evolved. •the southern song built china's first real navy. •Song intellectuals sought answers to all philosophical and political questions in the Confucian Classics. Song (960-1279). reunified most of China Proper.SONG DYNASTY •In 960 a new power. This renewed interest in the Confucian ideals and society of ancient times coincided with the decline of Buddhism. and maritime commerce. which the Chinese regarded as foreign and offering few practical guidelines for the solution of political and other mundane problems. The Song period divides into two phases: Northern Song (960-1127) and Southern Song (1127- 1279).

YUAN DYNASTY •The Mongols established the Yuan dynasty in china in 1271 •Ganges khan is known as the founder of the dynasty. Taoism and other religions flourished. •Kublai khan became the emperor of china. •He also increased contact with the western empires and consolidate the Mongolian empire. •trade flourished . •Buddhism . •introduced paper money •rivalries and rebels weakened the dynasty and the mongol dynasty fell. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT •expanded agriculture. •expanded grand canal •expanded trade along the silk route.

when Jina dynasty collapsed CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT •Buddhism exerted a strong influence in this dynasty •Development in armed forces •Reduction in trade barrier-economic prosperity • For the first time ever silver was used as legal tender •Calligraphy. Sima Yan established the Jin dynasty •Two phases— -The Xi (Western) Jin:ruled China from ad 265 to 316/317 -The Dong (Eastern) Jin:ruled China from ad 317 to 420. •Sima Yan's death lead to civil strife due to incompetent successors •The Dong Jin is considered one of the Six Dynasties.poetry.JIN DYNASTY •In 265A.oldest existing multi-arched stone bridge in the Beijing area) .D.prose popularized •Architecture developed (Lugou Bridge- Completed between 1188 and 1192.

as it was without major disruptions in population.MING DYNASTY (1368-1644) •The Ming dynasty was founded by a Han Chinese peasant and former Buddhist monk turned rebel army leader •Capital first at Nanjing and later at Beijing •The Chinese fleet sailed the China seas and the Indian Ocean.was constructed •China’s famous blue and white porcelain was originated •A monumental compilation of knowledge at the time. this was known as the Yǒnglè Dàdiǎn. incursions by the Japanese into Korea.establishing the last imperial dynasty. or politics •Long wars with the Mongols. arts. political and other systems were reformed •The repair and completion of the Great Wall and restoration of Grand Canal •The Forbidden City in Beijing. or the Yongle Encyclopedia . a great architectural achievement. the Qing CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT • Military. society. cruising as far as the east coast of Africa •Believed by people as the most satisfactory civilization on earth. and harassment of Chinese coastal cities by the Japanese in the sixteenth century weakened Ming rule • In 1644 the Manchus took Beijing from the north and became masters of north China.economy.

. led by Sun Yat-sen .QUING DYNASTY •The Manchus established the last dynasty. •The revolution of 1911. CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT •Promoted the collection of knowledge and writing of China •Ecomony and commerce develop. literature and arts flowered and culture of various forms thrived. broke out and overthrew the Qing Dynasty. the Quing •They retained many institutions of Ming and earlier Chinese derivation •Continued the Confucian civil service system •Measures were put in effect aimed at preventing the absorption of the Manchus into the dominant Han Chinese population (Intermarriage forbidden) •In many government positions a system of dual appointments was used-the Chinese appointee was required to do the substantive work and the Manchu to ensure Han loyalty to Qing rule •Gained control of Central Asia as far as the Pamir Mountains and established a protectorate over the area the Chinese call Xizang • First dynasty to eliminate successfully all danger to China Proper from across its land borders.

Social Stratification Of China Scholars/Officals Shi Farmers/Peasants Nong Artisans Gong Merchants Shang .

Shi – Gentry Scholars Defining the Shi as Gentry scholars is not wholly accurate. Scholars – even those who owned land – were never very rich. and then further into a bureaucratic scholarly elite where noble lineage was de-emphasized. and so scholarly pursuits were very challenging. but they were respected because of their knowledge. The early Shi came from the ancient warrior caste. but the make-up of the Shi gradually evolved until it was mostly made of aristocratic scholars who studied in order to occupy positions of rank. . Access to information was very limited in ancient times.

. Not only did the farmers produce the food to sustain the society. and agriculture long played a key role in the rise of Chinese civilization. Farmers were therefore valuable members of society even though they weren’t shi. Nong – Peasants Farmers Peasant farmers were second only to Gentry scholars in ancient China. Farmers were landholders like gentry scholars. they paid land tax. However. shi families were still landholders who also produced crops and food themselves. which was a source of state revenue for the ruling dynasties.

Gong – Artisans & Craftsmen The Gong were those who had skills to make useful objects. but most of them did not have land of their own and so did not generate the revenue. This was the class identified by the Chinese character that stands for “labour. and those that were most successful could become wealthy enough to hire apprentices or labourers that they could manage.” They were like farmers in that they produced essential objects. Artisans could be government employed or self employed. However. they commanded more respect than merchants because the skills they had were handed down from father to son. . Besides creating their own enterprises. the artisans also formed their own guilds.

they were held in low esteem because they did not produce anything. due to popular perception of these people as greedy and immoral. Though traders. Shang – Merchants & Traders There was not a lot of respect for merchants and traders in ancient Chinese society. Though they could achieve significant wealth. they were lowest on the four rungs of the ladder of ancient Chinese social hierarchy. . and peddlers were viewed as essential members of society. merchants. but rather transported and traded goods made by others. Sometimes merchants bought land in order to be considered farmers and therefore command more respect in society. Some would buy a good education for their descendants so that they could attain the status of scholars.

CHINESE PHILOSOPHER .

Te – Ching. . The name by which he is known is not a personal name but an honorific title meaning `old man ‘ or ` old teacher ‘. the work which exemplifies his thought. Instead of living by rigid rules and laws.LAO TZU (600 BC) He is a founder of Taoism . people should try to work with natural way of the world. rather than fighting it. He said that people should try to live in harmony with the universe . and in this way their lives would be easier and happier. He is best known as the author of Tao.

Confucius also known as kong zi or master kong. He prescribed that Let the ruler be a ruler and the subject a subject. If everyone was a good citizen. the whole community would benefits and everyone would be happier.also under the eastern chou dynasty. taught that people should recognize their responsibilities to the larger society . .CONFUCIUS Confucius who lived about 550 BC. and work uphold laws and customs of their society.

• Classical Chinese buildings. with the vertical walls not well emphasized. are built with an emphasis on breadth and less on height. • There is courtyard in most of the buildings. • The projected hierarchy and importance and uses of buildings in traditional Chinese architecture are based on the strict placement of buildings in a property/complex. especially those of the wealthy. featuring an enclosed heavy platform and a large roof that floats over this base. • Temple roofs are curved because they believe they ward off evils. • It helps in temperature control and ventilation. . CHARACTERISTICS OF CHINESE ARCHITECTURE • There is articulation and bilateral symmetry to create balance. • Chinese architecture from early times used concepts from Chinese cosmology such as feng shui(geomancy) and Taoism to organize construction and layout from common residences to imperial and religious structures.

• studied by: • Chirag asodaria(3-A) • Darshit kalathiya(14-A) • Unnati khadawala(18-A) • Bhaumik panchal(25-A) • Visha patel(29-A) • Jaimin rohit(32-A) • Niyanta thakkar(40-A) .

PUBLIC ARCHITECTURE The main characteristics of Chinese architecture which emerged were: 1. . •For example. A pillar might be shuttle .shaped and a beam formed as an arc so that. when used with a concave roof. Unit of structure with architectural art: •This was achieved by beautifying the structural components themselves instead of applying additional ornament. they achieved harmony of design with construction.

3. and many ancient structures still stand even after exposure to many earthquakes. so that columns can shift when an earthquake occurs. Good anti-seismic function •The structural components of a wooden building were connected by mortises and tenons and were thus able to move under earthquake conditions without causing the buildings to collapse.2. . or is supported on a series of vertical frames serving the same purpose. A high degree of standardization: •A building is composed of a group of beams carried on columns with curved corbel brackets forming a kind of roof truss . The space between two beam is called jian (a bay). •Similar techniques were applied to the connections of columns to plinth. Chinese wooden buildings have no deep foundations for columns. •These two construction technique were used in most of the building with rectangular plan.

4. doors and window frames were painted red. pillars. in palaces or temples. • Gradually the Chinese learned to employ colors appropriate to the nature of building. while the roof was yellow. •For example. Cool colors. or the element on which it was used. were applied under the eaves. Bright colors: •The practice of painting wooden buildings to prevent weathering and insect infestation to achieve decorative effects began in the Early spring and Autumn period (722-481 BC). often blue and green. walls. .

• There main aim was. • The cities were planned to maintain harmony (Feng shui) and balance between man. nature and heaven. CHINESE TOWNPLANNING • Town planning originated during the urbanization of the yellow river valley in the Neolithic Age. the merging of agricultural and commercial facilities. use of open space. gardening and natural landscape combined with bodies of water to enrich environment. • Unity was reflected at all levels . state. integration of commercial and residential needs and aesthetic consideration. • Courtyards were used as common public space.

triangular. square. CHINESE PAVILION • Chinese pavilions are covered structures without surrounding walls. • as a place for rest • as a roof to a stone tablet AESTHETIC FUNCTION: • Pavilions provided a place to sit and enjoy the scenery. being attractive structures. • they can be round. . PRACTICAL FUNCTION: • used for military and governmental purposes. an they also became part of the scenery itself.

. TERRACES • As an ancient architectural structure of chinese. the tai was a very much elevated terrace with a flat top. generally built of earth and stone and surfaced with brick. FUNCTIONS OF TERRACE: • as an observatory • as beacon towers along the great wall • in honor of the sincere friendship.

FUNCTIONS OF STOREYED PAVILIONS: • used in ancient times of the storage of important articles and documents. • a place where educated men used to gather to write articles and hold banquets • used for enjoying the sights. STOREYED PAVILIONS • storeyed pavilions were like simple pavilions stacked on top of each other. .

• they did not live in fully furnished extravagant homes. PRIVATE ARCHITECTURE POOR PEOPLE’S HOUSING • most of the people in ancient china were not very wealthy. • these houses had thatched roofs and had a fire pit in the middle of the floor . • the homes were made of mud bricks which is simply rammed earth.

• they have high wall surround homes with only one gateway. PRIVATE ARCHITECTURE • wealthy people have bigger house and had lots of slave. • house built around a courtyard. . • they fireplaces.