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WHAT ARE TOUCH SCREENS?

‘ A touch screen is an electronic visual display that can detect


the presence and location of a touch within the display area.

‘ The term generally refers to touching the display of the


device with a finger or hand.

‘ The display screen has a sensitive glass overlay placed on


it (touchpad)and we could give the desired input by touching
it.
HOW A TOUCHSCREEN SYSTEM WORKS
3ive basic elements make up a complete touchscreen system:
‘ The touchscreen itself.
‘ A computer (typically a PC) whose display is fitted with the
touchscreen.
‘ A controller card, which drives the touchscreen and converts each
touch into coordinates.
‘ A software driver program, which communicates between the controller
card and the computer's operating system.
‘ Application-development software, which enables developers of touch
programs to build their own applications and/or customize existing
touch applications.
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^ Resistive
^ Capacitive
a. Surface capacitance
b. Projected capacitance
^ Surface acoustic wave
^ Scanning Infrared TS
^ Strain gauge TS
RESISTIVE TOUCHSCREEN
‘ A resistive touchscreen panel is composed of several layers, the most
important of which are two thin, metallic, electrically conductive layers
separated by a narrow gap.
‘ When an object, such as a finger, presses down on a point on the
panel's outer surface the two metallic layers become connected at that
point: the panel then behaves as a pair of voltage dividers with
connected outputs.
‘ The two charged sheets are separated just enough to keep the
charges from touching each other.
‘ This causes a change in the electrical current, which is registered as a
touch event and sent to the controller for processing.
Working of
resistive
touchscreen
RESISTIVE TOUCHSCREEN
Advantages
Cheap to make.
Any object can be used to make contact.
Accuracy is high ± so interface is ideal for note taking and character recognition.
They are very accurate and can be used for high resolutions up to 4096X4096
dpi.
It can also be used in multiple touch screen pads.
Disadvantages
Top layer susceptible to damage.
Since there are many layers piled up on actual display, visibility is reduced.
Usually around 75% transmission is promised.
Over time tends to become less sensitive, accuracy decreases.
CAPACITIVE TOUCHSCREEN

A capacitive TS can be of two types±


i) Surface Capacitive
ii) Projected Capacitive .
^ In both cases top layer is usually of glass making it
more scratch resistant than resistive TS.
^ Core property used here is that of the capacitor ± two
conductors separated by an insulator.
SUR3ACE CAPACITIVE TOUCHSCREEN

‘ Dlass coated with conductive layer indium tin oxide on underside.


‘ This technology is based on the capacitor coupling effects.
‘ Small amount of voltage is applied to uniformly charge the entire surface.
‘ There are electrodes on the four corners of the screen to check for voltage
changes.

‘ When a conducting object, like a human finger touches the screen the charge
is drained at that point(glass acts as insulator between conducting layer and
conducting object)and a voltage change is registered.

‘ Each electrode detects this change, to arrive at the point of contact.


PROJECTED CAPACITIVE TOUCHSCREEN

‘ Consists of two parallel layers of conducting material (ITO),similar to the setup


seen in Resistive TS.

‘ The difference being ,there are no flexible layers- both layers are glass, and
conducting material is etched on the proximal surfaces so as to form a grid of
electrodes separated by a thin film of air(capacitors)

‘ Capacitance field is active above the surface of the top layer of glass bringing
conductive material like human finger close(2mm is enough) to the TS causes a
discharge and resultant voltage is picked by electrodes.

‘ i-Phone and other premium phones use this technology.


PROJECTED CAPACITIVE TOUCHSCREEN
CAPACITIVE TOUCHSCREEN

Advantages
‘ True touchscreens where mere touch generates input.
‘ Projected capacitive TS allows detection of multiple points of contact,
allowing multitouch operations/gestures.
‘ Compared to resistive touchscreens ,these screens allow faster inputs.
‘ Since glass isn't easily scratched, this is more rugged than Resistive TS.

Disadvantages
‘ Needs a conducting object to register touch, so an ordinary stylus or even a finger
nail will not do.
‘ Scratches on the top layer can impact performance.
SUR3ACE ACCOUSTIC WAVE TS

‘ This technology employs ultrasonic waves(USW) to form a grid above


the screen.
‘ Piezoelectric USW generators and reflectors are used to generate US
waves and stream them over the surface-usually glass.
‘ US waves are generate on both vertical and horizontal directions by
generators, while receivers placed at the opposite ends monitor them.
‘ Even when a finger or a object is placed near it ,some of the US waves
are blocked.
‘ This is detected by the receivers on both axes, and the location of the
point of touch is calculated.
SUR3ACE ACCOUSTIC WAVE TS


 
      

 
 
      
  

     
 
  

  
  
SUR3ACE ACCOUSTIC WAVE TS
SUR3ACE ACCOUSTIC WAVE TS

Advantages
‘ Since there are no layers involved, just as glass sheet, visibility is high.
‘ Works with any object.
‘ 3ast Touch Response
‘ High Resolution
‘ The only TS technology that can also detect Z-axis or pressure if any.

Disadvantages
‘ Since the network of US waves is above the surface,it is possible that false
touches are registered if objects come close.
‘ Expensive
SCANNIND IN3RARED TS

^ Similar in concept and function as Surface acoustic wave TS,


here IR diodes and sensors are placed on opposite sides of the
bezel to generate and receive IR waves respectively.

^ The obstruction in the IR waves at the point where the object is


placed on the screen is reduced to X and Y coordinates
SCANNIND IN3RARED TS
SCANNIND IN3RARED TS
Advantages
‘ There is no need to overlay any screens ,just the bezel containing the IR
transmitters and receivers are needed.
‘ So visibility is maximum among TS types.
‘ Since the circuitry can be completely sealed in bezel, this technology offers
reliability even in the toughest environments.
‘ Most preferred TS technology for large screens
Disadvantages
‘ Since normal sunlight also contains IR rays ,these screens do not perform
optimally when placed in areas with abundant sunlight.
‘ The density of the IR diodes determines the sensitive areas of the screen and
detectable size of the object.
‘ Some of the narrow spread or newer technologies are touched next
STRAIN DAUDE TS

^ In a strain gauge configuration, also called force panel technology, the


screen is spring-mounted on the four corners and strain gauges are used
to determine deflection when the screen is touched.
^ Also called force panel technology.
^ This technology has been around since the 1960s, but new advances by
Vissumo and 3-Origin have made the solution commercially viable.
^ It can also measure the Z-axis and the force of a person's touch. Such
screens are typically used in exposed public systems such as ticket
machines due to their resistance to vandalism.
THE 3UTURE«.
‘ Multi touch screens and collaborative software make a tough team.
‘ It is easy to picture a person using multi touch to rotate an image , but the
true power if multitouch is in having multiple people collaborating on the same
project.
‘ Two people collaborating on the same screen would be better. but nothing
would beat having a third person adding his inputs over the net.
‘ As the bandwidths expand and the internet connections speed up and
appropriate software is created, such an intercontinental brain storming
session would be possible causing an revolution in µcloud computing¶
‘ TSs and gestures are predicted to make mice and keyboard redundant.
‘ This is debatable.
cIc IODRAPHY

www.wikipedia.com

http://www.circuitstoday.com

http://www.seminarprojects.com