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( BNJ 20903)

CHAPTER 6

Theories of Elastic

Failures

CHAPTER VI THEORIES OF FAILURE

Maximum Normal Strain Theory

Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Tresca Yield

Criterion)

Strain Energy Theory

Maximum Distortion Energy Theory

stress theory and maximum normal strain theory are only

applicable for brittle materials, and the remaining three

theories are applicable for ductile materials.

TOPICS

Introduction

Maximum Normal Stress Theory (Rankine

Theory)

Maximum Normal Strain Theory (St-Venant

Theory)

Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Tresca Yield

Criterion)

Strain Energy Theory (Haigh Theory)

Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Von

Misses)

INTRODUCTION ( CONTD..)

Stress-Analysis is performed on a component to

determine

The required “size or geometry” (design)

an allowable load (service)

cause of failure (forensic)

For all of these, a limit stress or allowable stress value

for the component material is required.

Hence, a Failure-Theory is needed to define the onset

or criterion of failure

INTRODUCTION (CONTD..)

FAILURE

•Occurs if a component can no longer function as intended.

•Failure Modes:

Change in the geometry of the object.

component breaks apart.

can lead to bucking in columns.

INTRODUCTION (CONTD..)

FAILURE PREDICTION

tension or compression is relatively easy to predict.

• One can simply compare the stress incurred with the

strength of the material.

• When the loading conditions are Complex (i.e. biaxial

loading, sheer stresses) then we must use some method

to compare multiple stresses to a single strength value.

• These methods are known failure theories

INTRODUCTION (CONTD..)

NEED FOR FAILURE THEORIES

calculate margin of safety.

To guide in materials development.

MAXIMUM NORMAL STRESS THEORY

• this theory postulates, that failure will occur in the

structural component if the maximum normal stress in

that component reaches the ultimate strength, u

obtained from the tensile test of a specimen of the

same material.

2

• Thus, the structural component will be safe as long as

the absolute values of the principle stresses 1 and 2 u

are both less than u:

1

1 = U and 2 = U - u u

• The maximum normal stress theory can be expresses

graphically as shown in the figure. If the point

obtained by plotting the values 1 and 2 of the

principle stress fall within the square area shown in

the figure, the structural component is safe.

• If it falls outside that area, the component will fail.

MAXIMUM NORMAL STRAIN THEORY

This theory alson known as Saint-Venant’s Theory

According to this theory, a given structural component is

safe as long as the maximum value of the normal strain in

that component remains smaller than the value u of the

strain at which a tensile test specimen of the same material

will fail.

As shown in the figure, the strain is maximum along one of

the principle axes of stress if the deformation is elastic and

the material homogenous and isotropic.

Thus denoting by 1 and 2 the values of the normal strain

along the principle axes in plane of stress, we write

1 = u and 2 = u

MAXIMUM NORMAL STRAIN THEORY (CONT)

express these relations in term of the principle stresses 1

and 2 and the ultimate strength U of the material.

We would find that, according to the maximum normal

strain theory, the structural component is safe as long as

the point obtained by plotting 1 and 2 falls within the

area shown in the figure where is Poisson’s ration for the

given material.

2

U

U

U

1

1 1

-U U

-U

MAXIMUM SHEARING STRESS THEORY

• This theory is based on the observation that

yield in ductile materials is caused by slippage

of the material along oblique surfaces and is

due primarily to shearing stress.

• A given structural component is safe as long as

the maximum value max of the shearing stress

in that component remains smaller than the

corresponding value of the shearing stress in a

tensile test specimen of the same material as

the specimen starts to yield.

• For a 3D complex stress system, the max shear

stress is given by:

max = ½ (1-2)

• On the other hand, in the 1D stress system as

obtained in the tensile test, at the yield limit,

1= Y and 2=0, therefore:-

• max= ½ Y

MAXIMUM SHEARING STRESS THEORY (CONT.)

Thus,

max 1 - 2

1 1

max Y and

2 2

Y 1 - 2

1 1

2 2

1 - 2 Y 1 and 2 have opposite signs

1 Y

1 and 2 have same signs

2 Y

requires that the two principal stresses be within

the green zone as shown in the figure.

MAXIMUM DISTORTION ENERGY THEORY

This theory is based on the determination of the distortion

energy in a given material, i.e. of the energy associated with

changes in shape in that material (as opposed to the energy

associated with changes in volume in the same material).

A given structural component is safe as long as the maximum

value of the distortion energy per unit volume in that

material remains smaller than the distortion energy per unit

volume required to cause yield in a tensile test specimen of

the same material.

The distortion energy per unit volume in an isotropic

material under plane stress is:

Ud

1

6G

1 - 1 2 2

2 2

MAXIMUM DISTORTION ENERGY THEORY (CONT)

In the particular case of a tensile test specimen that is

starting to yield, we have:-

1 Y , 2 0

2Y

and U d Y

6G

Thus ,

2Y

6G 6G

1

1 1 2 2

2 2

2Y 1 1 2 2

2 2

illustrated in the figure

Von Mises criterion also gives a reasonable estimation of

fatigue failure, especially in cases of repeated tensile and

tensile-shear loading

PROBLEM 1

The solid shaft shown in Figure has a radius of 0.5 cm

and is made of steel having a yield stress of 360 MPa.

Determine if the loadings cause the shaft to fail

according to Tresca and von mises theories.

1 cm

15 kN 3.25 Nm

SOLUTION

P 15

Calculating 2 19 .10 kN

the 2 191MPa

stresses caused by axial force and torque

A 0.5 cm

x

x Tc

P 15

P 3.25

150.52 19.10 kNkN 2 191MPa

xyx A 0.5 2 165 19 10 cm 2 191MPa

.5.MPa

JA 00.5.54 cm

3.250.5

165.5 MPa

Tc

xy Tc 2 3.250.5 165.5MPa

xy J 0.5 4 165.5MPa

2

J 0.5 4 191.1MPa

2

The Principal stresses

x y x

y 2 2

2

11,,22 2 x

y

x y xy xy

2

2 2 2

2

2

x00 y

191

2

0 y

x 2

1,2 191

191

191 0 .(5165

(165 )2 5 )2

.xy

2 2

2 2

22

95.5 191.1

95 .5 1910 .1 191 0

2

191

1 95.6

(165.5)

2

21 95

2

.6 2

286.6

295 .5 .6 191.1

286

1 95.6

SOLUTION ( CONTD..)

Applying Maximum Shear stress theory

1 2 y

95.6 ( 286.6) 360

382.2 360

So shear failure occurs

Applying Maximum distortion theory

1

2 2

1 2 2 y

2

95.6

(95.6)( 286.6) (286.6) 2 3602

2

118677.9 129600

No Failure

PROBLEM 2

40 MPa

occurs at a critical point of a steel 80 MPa

machine component. As a result

of several tensile tests, it has

been found that the tensile yield

strength is Y=250 MPa for the

grade of steel used. Determine

25 MPa

the factor of safety with respect to

yield, using:

(a) the maximum shearing stress

theory

(b) the maximum distortion

energy theory

SOLUTION:

Given x 80MPa, y 40MPa , and xy 25MPa

The principle stresses 1 and 2 can be determined by using formula

or mohr' s circle,

1 85MPa and 2 45MPa

(a ). Maximum shearing stress theory

Since Y 250MPa , the correspond ing shearing stress at yield is

Y 250MPa 125MPa

1 1

Y

2 2

The maximum shearing stress can be determined by using formula

or mohr' s circle : -

max 65MPa

Therefore , tha factor of safety wit h respect to yield is : -

125MPa

F.S Y 1.92

max 65MPa

SOLUTION (CONT)

2

1 1 2 2 Y

2 2

F.S

2

2 2

F.S

250

114.3

F.S

F.S 2.19

PROBLEM 3

For an A 36 steel find the chances of failure by Tresca

and Von mises criterion

(Take y= 250 MPa)

80 MPa

75 MPa

125 MPa

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