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SOLID MECHANICS II

( BNJ 20903)
CHAPTER 6
Theories of Elastic
Failures
CHAPTER VI THEORIES OF FAILURE

 Maximum Normal Stress Theory


 Maximum Normal Strain Theory
 Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Tresca Yield
Criterion)
 Strain Energy Theory
 Maximum Distortion Energy Theory

Out of these five theories of failure, the maximum normal


stress theory and maximum normal strain theory are only
applicable for brittle materials, and the remaining three
theories are applicable for ductile materials.
TOPICS

 Introduction
 Maximum Normal Stress Theory (Rankine
Theory)
 Maximum Normal Strain Theory (St-Venant
Theory)
 Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Tresca Yield
Criterion)
 Strain Energy Theory (Haigh Theory)
 Maximum Distortion Energy Theory (Von
Misses)
INTRODUCTION ( CONTD..)
 Stress-Analysis is performed on a component to
determine
 The required “size or geometry” (design)
 an allowable load (service)
 cause of failure (forensic)
 For all of these, a limit stress or allowable stress value
for the component material is required.
 Hence, a Failure-Theory is needed to define the onset
or criterion of failure
INTRODUCTION (CONTD..)
FAILURE
•Occurs if a component can no longer function as intended.

•Failure Modes:

• yielding: a process of global permanent plastic deformation.


Change in the geometry of the object.

• low stiffness: excessive elastic deflection.

• fracture: a process in which cracks grow to the extent that the


component breaks apart.

•buckling: the loss of stable equilibrium. Compressive loading


can lead to bucking in columns.
INTRODUCTION (CONTD..)
FAILURE PREDICTION

• The failure of a statically loaded member in uni-axial


tension or compression is relatively easy to predict.
• One can simply compare the stress incurred with the
strength of the material.
• When the loading conditions are Complex (i.e. biaxial
loading, sheer stresses) then we must use some method
to compare multiple stresses to a single strength value.
• These methods are known failure theories
INTRODUCTION (CONTD..)
NEED FOR FAILURE THEORIES

 To design structural components and


calculate margin of safety.
 To guide in materials development.

 To determine weak and strong directions.


MAXIMUM NORMAL STRESS THEORY
• this theory postulates, that failure will occur in the
structural component if the maximum normal stress in
that component reaches the ultimate strength, u
obtained from the tensile test of a specimen of the
same material.
2
• Thus, the structural component will be safe as long as
the absolute values of the principle stresses 1 and 2 u
are both less than u:
1
1 = U and 2 = U - u u

• This theory deals with brittle materials only. -u


• The maximum normal stress theory can be expresses
graphically as shown in the figure. If the point
obtained by plotting the values 1 and 2 of the
principle stress fall within the square area shown in
the figure, the structural component is safe.
• If it falls outside that area, the component will fail.
MAXIMUM NORMAL STRAIN THEORY
 This theory alson known as Saint-Venant’s Theory
 According to this theory, a given structural component is
safe as long as the maximum value of the normal strain in
that component remains smaller than the value u of the
strain at which a tensile test specimen of the same material
will fail.
 As shown in the figure, the strain is maximum along one of
the principle axes of stress if the deformation is elastic and
the material homogenous and isotropic.
 Thus denoting by 1 and 2 the values of the normal strain
along the principle axes in plane of stress, we write
1 = u and 2 = u
MAXIMUM NORMAL STRAIN THEORY (CONT)

 Making use of the generalized Hooke’s Law, we could


express these relations in term of the principle stresses 1
and 2 and the ultimate strength U of the material.
 We would find that, according to the maximum normal
strain theory, the structural component is safe as long as
the point obtained by plotting 1 and 2 falls within the
area shown in the figure where  is Poisson’s ration for the
given material.
2

U
U
U
1 
1  1
-U U

-U
MAXIMUM SHEARING STRESS THEORY
• This theory is based on the observation that
yield in ductile materials is caused by slippage
of the material along oblique surfaces and is
due primarily to shearing stress.
• A given structural component is safe as long as
the maximum value max of the shearing stress
in that component remains smaller than the
corresponding value of the shearing stress in a
tensile test specimen of the same material as
the specimen starts to yield.
• For a 3D complex stress system, the max shear
stress is given by:
max = ½ (1-2)
• On the other hand, in the 1D stress system as
obtained in the tensile test, at the yield limit,
1= Y and 2=0, therefore:-
• max= ½ Y
MAXIMUM SHEARING STRESS THEORY (CONT.)

 Thus,

 max  1 -  2 
1 1
 max   Y and
2 2
 Y  1 -  2 
1 1
2 2
1 -  2   Y  1 and  2 have opposite signs
1   Y 

1 and  2 have same signs
2  Y 

 Graphically, the maximum shear stress criterion


requires that the two principal stresses be within
the green zone as shown in the figure.
MAXIMUM DISTORTION ENERGY THEORY
 This theory is based on the determination of the distortion
energy in a given material, i.e. of the energy associated with
changes in shape in that material (as opposed to the energy
associated with changes in volume in the same material).
 A given structural component is safe as long as the maximum
value of the distortion energy per unit volume in that
material remains smaller than the distortion energy per unit
volume required to cause yield in a tensile test specimen of
the same material.
 The distortion energy per unit volume in an isotropic
material under plane stress is:

Ud 
1
6G
 
1 - 1 2   2
2 2
MAXIMUM DISTORTION ENERGY THEORY (CONT)
 In the particular case of a tensile test specimen that is
starting to yield, we have:-
1   Y ,  2  0
 2Y
and U d Y 
6G
Thus ,
 2Y
6G 6G

1

1  1 2   2
2 2

 2Y  1  1 2   2
2 2

 This equation represents a principal stress ellipse as


illustrated in the figure
 Von Mises criterion also gives a reasonable estimation of
fatigue failure, especially in cases of repeated tensile and
tensile-shear loading
PROBLEM 1
 The solid shaft shown in Figure has a radius of 0.5 cm
and is made of steel having a yield stress of 360 MPa.
Determine if the loadings cause the shaft to fail
according to Tresca and von mises theories.

 1 cm

15 kN 3.25 Nm
SOLUTION
P 15
 
 Calculating 2  19 .10 kN
the 2  191MPa
stresses caused by axial force and torque
A  0.5  cm
x

 x  Tc
P 15
P  3.25 
150.52   19.10 kNkN 2  191MPa
 xyx  A  0.5  2 165 19 10 cm 2  191MPa
.5.MPa
JA 00.5.54 cm
3.250.5 
165.5 MPa
Tc
 xy  Tc 2 3.250.5 165.5MPa
 xy  J   0.5 4  165.5MPa
2
J 0.5  4 191.1MPa
2
 The Principal stresses
x y  x 
  y 2 2
2

 
 11,,22  2 x 
y
  x  y xy   xy
 2

2   2 2 
    2
2
 
  x00 y  
 191  
2
  0 y  
x 2
1,2 191
191
  191  0 .(5165
   
(165 )2 5 )2
.xy
  2 2   
2 2
22
 95.5  191.1
 95 .5 1910 .1   191 0 
2
191
1  95.6
     (165.5)
2

21  95  
2
.6 2
286.6
 295 .5 .6 191.1
286
 1  95.6
SOLUTION ( CONTD..)
 Applying Maximum Shear stress theory
1   2   y
95.6  ( 286.6)  360
382.2  360
 So shear failure occurs
 Applying Maximum distortion theory
1
2 2

 1 2   2   y
2

95.6 
 (95.6)( 286.6)  (286.6) 2  3602
2

118677.9  129600
 No Failure
PROBLEM 2
40 MPa

 The state of plane stress shown


occurs at a critical point of a steel 80 MPa
machine component. As a result
of several tensile tests, it has
been found that the tensile yield
strength is Y=250 MPa for the
grade of steel used. Determine
25 MPa
the factor of safety with respect to
yield, using:
(a) the maximum shearing stress
theory
(b) the maximum distortion
energy theory
SOLUTION:
Given  x  80MPa,  y  40MPa , and  xy  25MPa
The principle stresses 1 and  2 can be determined by using formula
or mohr' s circle,
1  85MPa and  2  45MPa
(a ). Maximum shearing stress theory
Since  Y  250MPa , the correspond ing shearing stress at yield is

 Y  250MPa   125MPa
1 1
Y 
2 2
The maximum shearing stress can be determined by using formula
or mohr' s circle : -
 max  65MPa
Therefore , tha factor of safety wit h respect to yield is : -
 125MPa
F.S  Y   1.92
 max 65MPa
SOLUTION (CONT)

(b). Maximum Distortion Energy Criterion


 
2

1  1 2   2  Y 
2 2

 F.S 
2

85  85 45   45   250 


2 2

 F.S 
250
114.3 
F.S
F.S  2.19
PROBLEM 3
 For an A 36 steel find the chances of failure by Tresca
and Von mises criterion
(Take y= 250 MPa)

80 MPa

75 MPa

125 MPa