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The

production process for each is similar in that both require a certain

number of labor hours in the carpentry department, and a certain

number of labor hours in the painting department. Each table takes 4

hours of carpentry work and 2 hours of painting work. Each chair

requires 3 hours in carpentry time and 1 hour in painting. During

the current production period, 240 hours of carpentry time and 100

hours of painting time are available. The marketing personnel are

confident that they can sell all the tables that are made. However, due to

an existing inventory of chairs, they want Flair to make no more than 60

new chairs. Each table sold results in a profit contribution of $7, and

each chair sold yields a profit contribution of $5. Flair Furniture is to

determine the best possible combination of tables and chairs to

manufacture in order to attain the maximum profit. The firm would like

this product mix situation formulated as an LP problem.

a)Formulate using Linear Programming

b) Solve graphically

To express the LP constraints for this problem

mathematically, we let

X1 = number of tables produced

X2 = number of chairs produced

Subject to: 4X1 + 3X2 ≤ 240 (constraint A)

2X1 + 1X2 ≤ 100 (constraint B)

Constraints added to ensure nonnegative solutions:

X1 ≥ 0, X2 ≥ 0

The first step is convert the constraint inequalities into

equalities (or equations):

The equation on the left (A) is plotted in Figure 9.1(A)

and the one on the right in Figure 9.1(B). To plot

The line in Figure 9.1(A), all we needed to do was find the

points at which the line intersected the X1 and X2 axes.

When X1 = 0 (The location where the line touches the X2

axis), it implies that 3 X2 = 24 or that X2 = 8. Likewise,

when X2 = 0, we see that 4 X1 = 24 and that X1 = 6. Thus,

the A constraint is bounded by the line running from (X1 =

0, X2 = 8) to (X1 = 6, X2 = 0 The shaded area represents all

points that satisfy the original inequality.

fashion. When X1 = 0, then X2 = 10, and when X2 = 0, then

X1 = 5. The B constraint then is bounded by the line

between (X1 = 0, X2 = 10) to (X1 = 5 ,X2 = 0) and the

shaded area represents the original inequality.

Figure 9.2 shows both constraints together- the

shaded region is the part that satisfies both

restrictions.

The shaded region in Figure 9.2 is called the area

of feasible solutions or simply the feasible region.

This region must satisfy all conditions specified

by the program’s constraints, and is thus the

region where all constraints overlap. Any point in

the region would be a feasible solution to the

Flair Furniture Company problem—any point

outside the shaded area would represent an

infeasible solution. Hence, it would be feasible to

manufacture 3 tables and 2 chairs (X1 =3, X2=2),

but it would violate the constraints to produce 7

tables and 4 chairs.

THE CORNER-POINT SOLUTION

METHOD

taken in solving for the optimal solution once

the feasible region has been established

graphically. The simplest one conceptually is

called the corner-point method .The

mathematical theory behind linear

programming states that the optimal solution

to any problem (that is, the values of the X1

variables which yield the maximum profit or

minimum cost) will lie at a corner point, or

extreme point, of the feasible region .Hence, it

is only necessary to find the values of the

variables at each corner—the maximum profit

or optimal solution will lie at one of them. This

concept is illustrated in Example 9.6

point a: (X1 = 0, X2 = 0) profit = ($7)(0) + ($5)(0) = $0

point b: (X1 = 0, X2 = 8) profit = ($7)(0) + ($5)(8) = $40

point d: (X1 = 5 ,X2 = 0) profit = ($7)(5) + ($5)(0) = $35

We skipped corner point c momentarily because to accurately

establish its coordinates, it is necessary to solve for the

intersection of the two constraint lines. To do so, we apply the

method of simultaneous equations to

Multiply the second equation by -2 and add it to the first

equation:

4X1 + 3X2 = 24

-4X1 - 2X2 =-20 [ which is –(2)(2X1+ 3X2 = 10)]

1X2 = 4

4X1= 12 or X1= 3. Now we can evaluate point c

point C: (X1 = 3, X2 = 4) profit = ($7)(3) + ($5)(4) =$41

Because point c produces the highest profit of

any corner point, the product mix X1 = 3 tables

and X2 = 4 chairs is the optimal solution to

Flair Furniture’s problem. This solution will result

in a profit of $41.

Note: Although the optimal solution to the

example fell at a corner point which was located

at the intersection of two constraint equations,

this is by no means always the case. The optimal

solution could just as easily have been at a

corner bordering on the X1 or X2 axis (such as

points b or d in the example). It all depends upon

the values of the objective function coefficients

and the angle of the profit line.

THE ISO-PROFIT-LINE SOLUTION

METHOD

A second approach to graphically solving

linear programming problems employs the

iso-profit line. This technique is often

more speedy than the corner-point

method, for we do not have to evaluate

the profit at every corner. Instead, we

draw a series of parallel profit lines. Any

point along a particular iso-profit line will

have the same profit or value of the

objective function. The highest profit line

(or one farthest from the zero origin)

which touches the feasible region

pinpoints the optimal solution.

EXAMPLE

given as:

maximize profit = 2X1 + 8X2

been graphed in Figure 9.4. We wish to

determine which corner point is optimal

using the iso-profit-line solution method.

We may begin by selecting any profit

level, for example, P=$200, and drawing

its (dashed) iso-profit line. Is there a

higher possible profit line which touches a

corner of the feasible region? The answer

appears to be yes, and by drawing a

series of parallel profit lines farther and

farther away from the origin, we

eventually reach the tip of the feasible

region (at corner point b). The profit there

will be P = $2(X1 = 0) + 8(X2 = 50) =

2(0) + 8(50) = $400. Thus, the maximum

profit line is 400 = 2X1 + 8X2

MINIMIZATION PROBLEMS IN

LINEAR PROGRAMMING

involve minimizing an objective such as

cost, instead of maximizing a profit

function. Basically the same graphical

approaches may be applied to solving

these types of problems.

EXAMPLE

school’s course offering for the fall semester.

Student demands deem it necessary to offer at least 30

undergraduate and 20 graduate courses in the term.

Faculty contracts also dictate that at least 60 courses be

offered in total.

Each undergraduate course taught costs the college an

average of $2,500 in faculty wages, while each graduate

course costs $3,000.

We may formulate this as a minimization LP problem as

follows.

Let: X1= number of undergraduate business courses offered

in fall

X2 = number of graduate business courses

Minimization problems can be solved graphically

by first establishing the feasible region, and then

by using either the corner-point method or an

iso-cost-line approach (analogous to the iso-

profit approach in maximization problems) to find

the values of X1 and X2 which yield the minimum

cost. The corner-point method is employed below

to solve the example.

EXAMPLE

construct the problem’s feasible region

(Figure 9.5). Minimization problems are

often unbounded outward (that is, on the

right side and on the top), but this causes

no problem in solving them. As long as

they are bounded inward (on the left side

and the bottom), corner points may be

established. The optimal solution will lie at

one of the corners.

In this case, there are only two corner points, a and b. It is

easy to determine that at point a, X1= 40 and X2= 20 and

that at point b, X1= 30 and X2= 30. The optimal solution is

found at the point yielding the lowest total cost.

total cost at a = $2,500 X1 + $3,000 X2

= (2,500)(40) + (3,000)(20) = $160,000

= (2,500)(30) + (3,000)(30) = $165,000

should schedule 40 undergraduate courses and 20 graduate

courses.

As mentioned, the iso-cost-line approach

may also be used to solve LP minimization

problems. As with iso-profit lines, we need

not compute the cost at each corner point,

but instead draw several parallel cost

lines, The lowest cost line to touch the

feasible region provides us with the

optimal solution corner.

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