Optimal Operation and Control of Refrigeration Processes (including LNG Plants


September 26, 2003



The basic refrigeration cycle Other refrigeration processes Where is refrigeration applied? Energy saving by improved operation or control Optimal operation and control LNG plants Summary Acknowledgments References

September 26 2003


The Basic Refrigeration Cycle
Q out

R c iv r

Cond ns r Motor Compr ssor

Expansion valv Q in Evaporator

Cool d str am out

(Dossat, 1991)

September 26 2003


Operation and Control of Refrigeration Processes  Main output: cooled stream outlet temperature  Main input: compressor effect Several internal variables that must/may be be controlled:  Pressure (and thereby temperature) before compressor  Evaporator level Possible control inputs  Expansion valve opening  Heat transfer in condenser  Cooled stream flow rate  Refrigerant composition Q out Power Condenser ecei er Compressor PT otor LT p nsion sion l e TT Q in por tor Cooled stre m out September 26 2003 4 .

A Typical Control Structure Q out SIC ower Condenser Receiver Compressor C T Expansion valve TT Q in Cooled stream out T Motor Evaporator TC September 26 2003 5 .

g. gas refrigerators) September 26 2003 6 .Other Refrigeration Processes (Wilson and Jones. replaced by dry gas (e. air)  Absorption refrigeration ± no compressor needed (e.g. 1994)  Multiple stages refrigeration Condenser Evaporators Receiver  Open liquefaction cycle: liquefied gas is withdrawn as product.

Where Is Refrigeration Applied?           Refrigerators and freezers in homes. « Re-liquefaction (ship gas transport) Conventional superconductors ± Particle accelerator (e. warehouses.9K Rocket fuel: liquid hydrogen and oxygen September 26 2003 7 . CERN). argon Liquefaction of gases: LNG. hospitals Processing and transport of food Air conditioning Heat pumps (efficient heating by cooling the environment) Process industry whenever cooling water temperature is not sufficient Liquefaction and separation of air: oxygen. hydrogen. helium. 1.g. chlorine. nitrogen.

Improved control examples: ± Gilde. Somerville (Australia): avoid compressor cycling (966MWh/year) ± Rainier Cold Storage.Energy Saving by Improved Control or Operation  EU. Port of Seattle: compressors adjusted after load and environmental changes (367MWh/year) Energy savings in demonstration projects: Process control 30% September 26 2003 Computer controlled speed fans 30-44% Computer aided operation: 20% 8 . Norway: run the ³correct´ compressors (5% savings) ± Inghams Enterprises. 1990: the total electricity consumption for refrigeration in the food industry was estimated at 8TWh/year (Norway¶s total electrical energy production 2002: 122TWh/year)  Centre for Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET).

i. total power consumption or power consumption per produced unit  Free variables?  Constraints?  Process model p  Typical disturbances: ± Varying cooling demand ± Compressor upsets ± Varying heat-transfer in condenser min * .Optimal Operation and Control  In the industry: optimal means improved  A solution that maximizes (or minimizes) a criterion  Criterion? ± In the end: Maximize profit ± Maximize throughput ± Minimize cost.e.

p p P F .

p e 0 9 September 26 2003 .

Operation? ? ?? ?? ? Control?  Optimal operation = optimal steady state working point Operation may also involve ± maintenance of equipment ± manual interventions ± turnarounds but these are not covered here  Optimal control = optimal way to reach this working point and handle disturbances ± Linear Quadratic Gaussian Control (LQG) ± Model Predictive Control (MPC) September 26 2003 10 .

Control Hierarchy Operation Optimal Control Skogestad and Postletwaite (1996) September 26 2003 11 .

pumps and fans): improved power distribution between the units Q out C R c iv r B Cond ns r Motor Compr ssor Log pressure p2 Liquid C Condensation B Expansion Compression A D Expansion valv Q in September 26 2003 p1 Vaporization D Gas and Liquid A Gas Specific enthalpy 12 Evaporator Cool d str am out .What Can Be Gained With Optimal Operation«      less compressor recycling less suction temperature overheating   higher suction pressure increased cooled stream temperature   more effective cooling cycle with more than one compressor: improved power distribution connected to other process units (e.g.

« and with Optimal Control?  the process is kept at optimum (despite disturbances)  transients are optimal  the margins can be reduced   the optimum can be improved y yref y yref y yref September 26 2003 13 .

Air Separation Units     Produce oxygen.5 days of CPU time September 26 2003 14 . (2002): Simultaneous optimal design of ± process (number of trays and diameter) ± control structure (pairing of outputs and inputs) ± controller tuning 1. nitrogen and argon from air Air is liquefied with a nitrogen refrigeration cycle Separation of the components with distillation columns High purity requirements  Main control and operational challenges: the distillation columns  Schenk et al.

LNG Plants  Natural gas cooled to below -163°C ± Liquefied at 1atm  Volume reduction with a factor of 600  Possible to transport gas with ships ± Alternative to pipe transport September 26 2003 15 .

Optimal Operation of LNG Plants Main objectives:  Maximize LNG production or  Minimize storage  Minimize energy consumption September 26 2003 16 .

. compressor limits and rate change limits) ± Process output ranges (suction pressures. «) September 26 2003 17 .Optimal Control of LNG Refrigeration Plants (Mandler et al. distance to compressor surge.1998)  Main control objectives ± Maintain a set LNG production rate ± Maintain the LNG temperature within a desired range  Other control objectives depend on the process configuration  Constraints ± Input ranges (valve ranges. relief valve settings. power limits.

Albatross and Askeladd Subsea production 160 km of piping into the LNG plant Production: 5.Snøhvit LNG Plant (Norway)      Gas produced at the gas fields Snøhvit.7 billion Sm3 LNG/year 2006-2035 Operated by Statoil ASA September 26 2003 18 .

LNG. Mixed Fluid Cascade Process (simplified) NG Precooling -50°C Li uefaction -80°C Subcooling Sea water Sea water Sea water -160°C LNG September 26 2003 19 .

Basic Control strategy NG Precooling PIC TIC Li uefaction PIC TIC Subcooling PIC TIC FIC September 26 2003 LNG 20 .

Operation NG Precooling P1 T1 Li uefaction PIC TIC P2 PIC T2 Subcooling Adjust to obtain desired production rate September 26 2003 TIC P3 PIC TIC FIC Specified LNG 21 .

an Exercise  Objective: Minimize energy consumption in the 3 compressors  Free variables: Compressor suction pressures. «)  Some constraints: ± LNG production rate and temperature ± Flow into compressor shall be gas ± Compressor constraints September 26 2003 22 . P2. methane. and P3 Other free variables: ± Temperatures T1 and T2 ± Refrigerant composition in each cycle (nitrogen. ethane. propane. P1.Optimal Operation.

Optimization When available: Measurements Optimization problem definition Adjust free variables Optimization server (SQ ) User interface (Excel) Model Results Objective function and constraint values (Hysys) 23 September 26 2003 .

Results: Optimal Operation Changing the suction temperature margin from 10 to 5°C: Increase in suction pressure P1 P2 P3 0.63 bar 0.09TWh/year) September 26 2003 24 .84 bar Compressor consumption: 103 -> 93 MW Savings: 10MW (=0.61 bar 0.

Snøhvit  Potential for savings with optimal control are not fully determined: ± the actual disturbances are unknown ± recycle of vaporized NG during ship loading ± steady gas production? ± composition variations? ± regular pre-treatment? ± compressor shut-downs?  Preliminary dynamic study (with disturbances as expected) ± Low potential for savings identified ± Exceptions during large production level changes during start-up  Will try to start without optimal control  Regulatory control shall be sufficient for stable and safe operation September 26 2003 25 .Optimal Control.

T2 ) ± Set-point for refrigerant flow in subcooler ± Set-point for LNG temperature ± Refrigerant compositions  Constraints as before  Additional measurements: ± NG inlet flow rate ± NG inlet composition  Statoil MPC.Optimal Control: Possible Solution  Optimization criterion ± Maximize LNG flow rate ± Minimize energy consumption in the compressors  Possible manipulated variables: ± NG temperatures after 1st and 2nd heat exchanger (T1. SEPTIC (planned to be used in to control columns in the pre-treatment processes) September 26 2003 26 .

2002)  6 identical liquefaction trains  Product delivered to ships  Optimization in two levels 1. Maximize process efficiency of each train September 26 2003 27 . Plantwide optimization: Minimize storage and thereby ± storage loss ± production cost (produce as little as possible) 2.GL2Z LNG Plant in Arzew. Algeria (Zaïm.

Algeria: Plantwide Optimization (Zaïm. ships arrivals and capacities)  Inputs ± Ship loading schedule ± Plan for maintenance of trains ± Product quality requirements ± Feed gas composition  Method ± Define time intervals with constant demand ± Determine required production in each train for each interval ± Feedback from measured production September 26 2003 28 . 2002)  Adapt the LNG production to the downstream demand (i.e.Arzew.

2002)  Obtain desired ± production rate ± product quality  Minimize energy consumption  Other outputs to be controlled ± two refrigerant temperatures in the main heat exchanger ± pressures after the two expansion valves  Control inputs ± Natural gas composition and flow ± Mixed refrigerant composition and flow  Model Predictive Control  No simulation results available September 26 2003 29 .Optimal Control of Each Train (Zaïm.

reduce compressor cycling) ± Up to 30-40% of the energy consumption can be reduced  LNG plants: Liquefaction of natural gas ± Two examples of optimal operation September 26 2003 30 .g.Summary  The cooling cycle: Compression. vaporization  Control challenges: ± Avoid liquid in the compressor ± Inverse response in the evaporator  Refrigeration: Many important applications ± at home and the food industry ± process industry (liquefaction)  Energy demanding  Optimal operation and control ± Minimize energy consumption and fulfil constraints ± Identified potentials for savings (e. condensation. expansion.

John-Morten Godhavn. Geir A. Silja E. of Chemical Engineering. NTNU  Morten Hovd.Acknowledgments  Colleagues at Statoil ASA ± Pål Flatby. Oddvar Jørstad. Dept. Owren. NTNU  Staff at the NTNU Library September 26 2003 31 . Jan Richard Sagli  Dag Eimer. Gylseth. of Engineering Cybernetics. Dept. former colleague at Norsk Hydro ASA  Terje Herzberg. Jørgen Opdal. Håvard Nordhus.

caddet-ee.eu. 3rd ed. No. http://www.caddet-ee. (2000). CADDET web page.nve.). New York. http://www. Flynn.3. CADDET web page. S. London.org Rainier Cold Storage. Inc. Prentice-Hall International Editions. London. (2000). (ed. CADDET Energy Efficiency News Bulletin. K. 16-17 Inghams Enterprises (2002). Marcel Dekker. Cryogenic Engineering. Th.. and Eriksen. (1997).org The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) The energy folder 2002. pp. G. J. Haselden.. Energy Consumption and Efficiency EU: http://europa.no/ September 26 2003 32 .int/comm/energy_transport/atlas/htmlu/refrigeration. Inc. G. Academic Press. Control system minimizes energy use in a meat-processing factory.html Grandum. R. (1991). Cryogenic fundamentals. Principles of refrigeration.References (1) Refrigeration Textbooks Dossat. Advanced Food Refrigeration Control. Improved Refrigeration Control System in A Food Cold Storage Facility. http://www.

. (2003). Hydrocarbon Processing. The Fairmont Press Inc.. pp.1. The influence of plant design on refrigeration circuit control and operation. Inst. 109-111 Marshall. Identification and Control (MIC). Modeling. Washington. 189. Refrigeration loop dynamic analysis using PROTISS. (1988).. Vol.E. 26-29 May 1996. Lilburn. (2002). Process control. DC. Greece. No. Fuzzy logic PI controller with on-line optimum intermediate pressure for double stage refrigeration system. August 17-22. and Mummé. Dublin March 28-30.. pp. Improve control of cryogenic gas plants.References (2) Refrigeration Process Control Balchen. I. Telnes. W. G. 20. K. May. B. (1996). Mech. G. J. New York. ESCAPE-6. pp. K. Frequency response adaptive control of a refrigeration cycle.10. A. C. Rhodes. Goldfarb. S. 3-11. Dynamic analysis of an industrial refrigeration system to investigate capacity control. and Lopez. B. (1989).A. and Oldham. Lensen. 21st IIR International Congress of Refrigeration. and Di Ruscio. Esnoz.A. J. Vol. ESCAPE-4. (1975). Structures and applications.44/75. A. and Jones. S811-S816 Langley. R. Vol. pp. J. and James. '94. pp. 2003. Proc. Engrs. 1991. D. Van Nostrand Reinhold. S. September 26 2003 33 . No. USA. (1991). W. Balchen. GA. (1994). J. A. Fine tuning Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Systems. 437-444 Wilson. Supplement to Computers & Chemical Engineering. 215-221.

Sakizlis. Ph. 582-587 D¶Accadia. DYCOPS-5. M. 601-604 Leduc . Mandler.. Perkins.. thesis. of Computer-Aided Process Operations. June 8-10. and Pistikopoulos E.D. and Biegler. (1994). Greece. Optimization-Based Methodologies for Integrating Design and Control in Cryogenic Plants. of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. Corfu. Florida. J. Energy Convers. Ch. Washington.331336.12.. M. A. J. Optimum performance of heat engine-driven heat pumps: A finite-time approach.T. J. M. S. Application of a reduced dynamic model to the control of a refrigeration cycle. 4th Int. Proceedings of the Conference held at Coral Springs. D: Appl. USA. G. 38. pp. Bandoni.. Tonelli. (1997). 2003. 26-29 May 2002. 4. pp. The Hague. The Netherlands. Trondheim. S. DC. (2002). Norwegian University of Science and Technology.. (1998). S. No. Schenk. 401-413 Diaz. Norway September 26 2003 34 . D. Sasso. Vol. August 17-22. L. 30. 405-413. Guilpart. Vol. V. Svensson. Dynamic Optimization for Switching Between Operating Modes in Cryogenic Plants. D.. 5th IFAC Symposium on Dynamics and Control of Process Systems.D. Conf. J. Optimal Performance analysis of irreversible cycles used as heat pumps and refrigerators. 21st IIR International Congress of Refrigeration. Studies on on-line optimizing control. Modeling for Control Analysis and Design in Complex Industrial Separation and Liquefaction Processes. 1998.A. and Sibilio. J. Phys. January 12-15. Dept. pp. (2003). (1997). 2003. European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering . FOCAPO 2003. M. and Trystram..N. pp. pp.. Phys. with application to a heat pump. (2003).References (3) Optimal Operation and Control (see also applications and LNG) Chen.

A. Trondheim. Eng. DMC Control of a complex refrigerated fractionator. G.18. M. J. Control of Refrigeration Process at Dalgård (Indoor) Ice Rink. Ph. No. G. Gannon. of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning.T. and Norden. pp. Investigation. (1981). (1991). Department of Engineering Cybernetics. pp. Instum.G. Andersen.. Houk. Vol. 675-683. thesis. Vol. Improving efficiency in existing chillers with optimization technology. (1995). J. C. T.Opt. pp. Skimmeli. October 1991. 21st IIR International Congress of Refrigeration. Design of a new strategy for the control of the refrigeration process: fruit and vegetables conditioned in a pallet. (2002). R.171-191. USA. Master thesis. G. Thesis. 3251-3253 Olson. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. M.9K cooling loop for superconducting magnets for the large hadron collider. Dept. Food Control. and Johnston. (1997). DC. No. pp.-C. Norway Cho. (2000).D. Automatica. NS-28. Optimization of a chilled water plant using sequential quadratic programming. B..1-32.References (4) Refrigeration Operation and Control Applications Alvarez. (1994). ASHRAE Journal. 3.S. B. G. Control. (1982).H. R. A. 2003.Sc. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Rode. C. Multi-objective optimization of food refrigeration processes.. Quasi-optimal algorithms for the control loops of the FERMILAB energy saver satellite refrigerator. I. Alvarez. August 17-22. Computer Optimization of Refrigeration Systems in a Textile Plant: A Case History. 6. N. Kaya. D. 15. Q. J. T. September 26 2003 35 . Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trelea. and McCarthy. Norway Hokanson. (2003). H. Vol.(1990). modelling and control of the 1. Adv. 6. Vol.T. of Engineering Cybernetics. Dept. pp. J. J. and Liebman. and Trystram. 21. Nonlinear predictive optimal control of a batch refrigeration process. and Trystram. Food Process Engn. and Pham. 541-552. Martin. Washington.T. 30-38 Luong. Temperature control in the large Hadron Collider at CERN... June. Trondheim. pp. IEEE Transactions of Nuclear Science. Vol. 6. pp. 347-355. Flemsæter. (1989). No.. Ch.

A. and Brochu. Presented at LNG 12 Conference. John Wiley & Sons. Case study: GL2Z LNG plant in Arzew. Multivariable feedback control. Australia. and Postletwaite. P. and Brochu..References (5) LNG and Control of LNG plants Mandler.cern.htm Skogestad. Controllability Analysis of the LNG Process. Other Sources for the Presentation CERN: http://public. (1997). (2002).web.. Aachen. (1998). Perth.statoil. P.ch/public/ Gram Refrigerators: http://www. J.D.A. Thesis. J. CA (Paper 197a) Mandler. Dynamic optimization of an LNG plant. Brochu. Shaker Verlag. Aachen. S. Algeria. Presented at 1997 AIChE Annual Meeting. Rheinisch-Westfälishen Technischen Hochschule (RWTH).A. May 1998 The Snøhvit project: www. I. J.com/snohvit Zaïm. New Control Strategies for the LNG Process. A. Los Angeles.gram. Chichester.A. (1996).dk/produkter. Ph.A. Fotopoulos. P. UK September 26 2003 36 .

. 2000. S. 1990.Refrigeration Operation and Control Applications  Process industry ± NLG plant (Diaz. 1991)  Particle accelerators ± FERMILAB (USA) (Martin. 1995) ± Steady state optimization (Luong and Pham.. 1981) ± CERN (Europe) (Flemsæter. 2002)  Other Applications ± New control structures for indoor ice rinks (Skimmeli.1989) ± Nylon plant: Steady state optimization of 8 cycles (Cho et al. 2003) ± Multivariable control (DMC) of a fractionator with a refrigeration process (Hokanson et al. Andersen. 1994) September 26 2003 37 . 1982)  Food ± Control for fruits and vegetables (Alvarez and Trystram. et al. 2003)  Air condition ± Optimal operation (Olson and Liebman. Kaya..

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