CHEESE

Contents
• History and origin of cheese. • Methods of manufacturing cheese. • Countries manufacturing cheese. • Countries exporting cheese. • Different types of cheese. • Accompaniments of cheese. • •

 Central Asia or the Middle East. but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times. the cheese became a suitable environment for useful microbes and molds. similar in texture to rustic cottage cheese. • Cheese produced in Europe. required less salt for preservation. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheese making originated.History and origin of cheese • Cheese is an ancient food whose origins predate recorded history. where climates are cooler than the Middle East. flavorful Greek cheese. dating to about 2000 BCE. • The earliest archeological evidence of cheese making has been found in Egyptian tomb murals. a crumbly. The earliest cheeses were likely to have been quite sour and salty. With less salt and acidity. giving aged . either in Europe.

Manufacture of cheese • Curdling . giving Swiss cheese its holes (called “eyes"). The acidification can be accomplished directly by the addition of an acid like vinegar in a few cases (paneer. queso fresco). Swiss starter cultures also include Propionibacter shermani.A required step in cheese making is separating the milk into solid curds and liquid whey. but most cheeses also use rennet. Some fresh cheeses are curdled only by acidity. softer. but usually starter bacteria are employed instead. or Streptococci families. in general. smaller. The same bacteria (and the enzymes they produce) also play a large role in the eventual flavor of aged cheeses. Most cheeses are made with starter bacteria from the Lactococci. These starter bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. Usually this is done by acidifying (souring) the milk and adding rennet. Lactobacilli. which produces carbon dioxide gas bubbles during aging. fresher cheeses are curdled with a greater .

affecting both the bacterial culture and the milk chemistry. Some cheeses are salted from the outside with dry salt or brine washes. and firms cheese’s texture in an interaction with its proteins. salted. Some soft cheeses are now essentially complete: they are drained. The pressure drives out moisture. Most cheeses achieve their final shape when the curds are pressed into a mold or form. Salt has roles in cheese besides adding a salty flavor. At this point. Most cheeses have the salt mixed directly into the curds. the curd is cut into small cubes.. draws moisture from the curd. It preserves cheese from spoiling. Cheeses that are heated to the higher temperatures are usually made with thermophilic starter bacteria that survive this step either lactobacilli or streptococci. and unifies the curds into a single solid body . For most of the rest. The harder the cheese. It changes the taste of the finished cheese. the more pressure is applied. and packaged. the molds are designed to allow water to escape.Curd Processing . This allows water to drain from the individual pieces of curd. Some hard cheeses are then heated to temperatures in the range of 35–55 °C (95–131 °F). the cheese has set into a very moist gel.

from the French. Gorgonzola. they are simply allowed to settle and grow on the stored cheeses. In traditional cheese making. Some cheeses have additional bacteria or molds intentionally introduced before or during aging. A newborn cheese is usually salty yet bland in flavor and.Ripening . cheese curds are eaten on their own—but normally cheeses are left to rest under controlled conditions. blue cheeses such as Roquefort. rubbery in texture. These cheeses include soft ripened cheeses such as Brie and Camembert. prepared cultures are used. . and fatty acids. These qualities are sometimes enjoyed. giving more consistent results and putting fewer constraints on the environment where the cheese ages. or. and rind-washed cheeses such as Limburger. these microbes might be already present in the aging room. for harder varieties. More often today. amines. This aging period (also called ripening. affinage) lasts from a few days to several years. As a cheese ages. This transformation is largely a result of the breakdown of casein proteins and milkfat into a complex mix of amino acids. microbes and enzymes transform texture and intensify flavor. Stilton.

Processed hard cheese (such as grated. These cheese products can benefit significantly from MA-package concepts. having logistical benefits over more spacious top-sealed MA-packages. Hard Cheeses ( Dutch : Half harde kazen en Goudse kazen ) Gouda cheeses are fairly forgiving to many conditions. sliced and cut in pieces) is more demanding with respect to the packaging. Recent developments in material technology have made it possible to manufacture bio-degradable vacuum bags with almost comparable properties and performance as the conventional vacuum bags. The resulting shelf life is about 10 weeks. Vacuum packed hard cheeses are compact products. Cut parts of Gouda cheese are therefore mostly vacuum packed in PE/PA bags.Packing of cheese . The vacuum package retards the growth of spoilage organisms and stops contamination from out-side. . On the other hand the top-sealed  MA-packages have a more attractive appearance. which can enhance sales.

The exact shelf life depends strongly on the nature of the product. The vitality of the surface mould depends strongly on the applied conditions in the supply chain and the microclimate inside the package. The technology of equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging (E-MAP) allows the ideal storage microclimate for these cheeses to be approached inside the package. two-three weeks is feasible for cut cheeses. The respiration depends strongly on the age of the cheese and hence the development stage of the surface moulds. This technology can offer large shelf life extensions of several weeks. . For a successful implementation a close match between the respiration rate of the cheese and the film permeability is required under supply chain realistic conditions.Surface moulded cheeses such as Camembert and Brie are respiring products. whereas six weeks is possible for whole cheeses.

Very soft internal moulded cheeses can best be MA-packaged. Good packaging concepts can extend the shelf life for many weeks. Danish Blue) are slowly respiring cheeses. vacuum packaging could result in liquefying the cheese. such as: vacuum packaging and MA-packaging. . Since. strongly depending on the nature of the product.Internal moulded cheeses ( Dutch : Blauwschimmelkazen ) Internal moulded cheeses (such as Roquefort. Important criteria for the choice of a package are the softness of the cheese and the respiration rate. They are fairly tolerant to the conditions of storage and hence many packaging technologies can be applied to  control their quality.

  A high controlled humidity prohibits the growth of competing organisms such as moulds. Moreover light and oxygen can also result in quality deterioration. Fresh and cream cheeses ( Dutch : verse roomkazen ) Fresh cheeses (Mon Chou . Kernhem . Hüttenkase ) are very sensitive to dehydration. A shelf life of six to ten weeks can be obtained.Smear coat cheeses ( Dutch : Roodbacteriekazen ) The quality of smear coated cheeses (Port Salut . Therefore. Therefore. Hence some of these cheeses are packed under low oxygen conditions in barrier packages. they need to be protected from moisture loss by barrier packages. the technology of Modified Humidity Packaging is well suited for this type of soft cheese. such as top-sealed MA-packages . which is related to the relative humidity inside the package. Münster ) is strongly dependant on the vitality of the surface culture (often Brevibacterium Linens).

Countries manufacturing cheese Top cheese producers (1.927 (2008) 1.884 (2008) 1.149 (2008) 732 (2008) 594 (2008) 495 (2006) 462 (2006) 425 (2006) 395 (2006) .275 (2006) 1.000 metric tons) United States Germany France Italy Netherlands Poland Brazil Egypt Argentina Australia 4.

575  New Zealand 631. by monetary value. Top cheese exporters (Whole Cow Milk only) – 2004 value in U. the world's largest exporter. Only 30% of French production. the second.253. as most of its production is for the domestic market.156 .580  Denmark 1. is exported.963  Belgium 567.761  Australia 643. 72%. is a marginal exporter. 90%. is France. New Zealand. $  France 2.The biggest exporter of cheese.441  Germany 2.122. only Ireland. the Netherlands and Australia have a cheese production that is mainly export oriented: respectively 95%.590  Ireland 445.416.S. Among the top ten exporters. the biggest world producer of cheese.353  Italy 1.973  Netherlands 2.658.099. Germany (although it is first by quantity).240  United Kingdom 374. The United States. and 65% of their cheese production is exported.

3  United Kingdom 10.9  Australia 12.8 .1  Switzerland 21.6  Iceland 25.7  Norway 15.3  Poland 9.8  Canada 12.3  United States 14.4  Germany 31.1  Austria 17.8  Czech Republic 16.41 Italy 21.2009 Total cheese consumption (kg) per capita per year  Greece 11.4  Sweden 18.Top consumers of cheese Top cheese consumers .0  France 22.0  Argentina 11.0  Finland 26.9  Netherlands 10.

Hard cheese 2 . Soft cheese 4 . Semi soft cheese 3 . 1 . Blue cheese .Types of cheese Cheese can be classified into various categories depending on its texture .

independent dairy with milk from neighboring farms.Hard cheese 2. pressed and has small holes. Country : France Milk : cow milk Texture : hard Fat content : 50 % . In Flanders it is sometimes eaten as a breakfast cheese with coffee. It is made in a small. They are generally packed into molds under more pressure and aged for a longer time 1 ) »   Abbaye du Mont des Cats   « This cheese requires the same production methods as "Port du Salut". a reddish derivative from annatto seeds. The pâté is hard. uncooked. Affinage (maturing) takes a minimum of one month and during this period the cheese is washed in salted water and dyed with rocou (a South American bush plant).1. It has been produced in the north of France since 1890 by the monks from an abbey near the town of Godewaersvelde (meaning God's plain). Harder cheeses have a lower moisture content than softer cheeses.

The cheese is hard and chewy. The cheese has a natural rind covered in gray mould. The deep russet-red natural rind bears the intricate marks of the basket mould in which it is made. The cheese is sold at around four months. Each bite reveals more of its complex flavors . crusty. Country : England. unpasteurized. The flavor has a hint of burnt caramel and buttery taste of sheep's milk. caramelized onions and meadow flowers with prickly tang. Texture : Hard Fat content : 48% . but also in soups. Milk : ewe milk. when the hard. Country : Spain.roasted nuts. Fat content : 50 % 3 ) »   Berkswell   « Modern. It has a flattened round shape.2 ) »   Zamorano   « Famous Spanish cheese. Texture : hard. but is less grainy. Milk : ewe milk. The cheese is very similar to Castelanno and Manchego. for grating. almost granular. ridged rind has an aroma of lanolin and damp wool. hard cheese made from sheep's milk. usually produced in the shape of drum. It is used as a table cheese. farmhouse. vegetarian. Zamorano is used as a table cheese and it ripens in three to nine months.

These cheeses originate from South and West Wales. There exist two types of Bra. Milk : cow milk. farmhouse. Texture : hard 5 ) »   Caerphilly   « Traditional. the white and gray moulds become thicker and more leathery. Caerphilly has a fresh taste. when the paste is still soft. at 45 days. hard version that ripens for three to six months. unpasteurized. vegetarian cheese made from cow's milk. hard cheese which has a round shape. Country : Italy. Milk : cow milk. unpasteurized. When young. The other type is sold young. This version is made from pasteurized milk. With maturity the edges become creamy and the flavor becomes more rounded. It was first made in Caerphilly in about 1830. It usually has a wheelshape with ivory-white rind dusted with fine flour. This cheese is known as "the crumblies". The color darkens and the flavor intensifies. Country : Wales. As the cheeses are aged in a moist cellar. the texture is moist yet supple. Texture : Hard Fat content : 48 % . Bra is used as a table cheese.4 ) »   Bra   « Traditional. The traditional. The cheese is named after place where it was originally sold. but also for grating and melting.

It can be refrigerated and is best eaten within two weeks of opening. France. weighing approximately 2 kg (5 lb). among Vosgian abbeys and monasteries. Though Port Salut has a mild flavour.géromé. Port Salut is a semi-soft pasteurised cow's milk cheese from Mayenne. The cheese is produced in disks approximately 23 cm (9 inches) in diameter. it sometimes has a strong smell because it is a mature cheese. 2) Munster Munster or Munster . Lorraine and Franche-Comté in France.Semi soft cheese 1 ) Port . soft cheese made mainly from milk from the Vosges. between Alsace. with a distinctive orange crust and a mild flavour.Salut . the cheese was conserved and matured in monk's cellars. is a strong tasting. The smell increases the longer the cheese is kept — this however does not affect its flavour. . The name munster may come from the little town of Munster. where.

It is a table cheese that can be sliced. Havarti is an interior-ripened cheese that is rindless. or melted. Due to its high moisture content. and from somewhat sweet to very sweet. Mozzarella of several kinds are also used for most types of pizza. It is typically aged about three months. and it is slightly acidic. 4 ) Mozzarella Fresh mozzarella is generally white. or longer when sold in vacuum-sealed packages. Low-moisture mozzarella can keep refrigerated for up to a month. but can be kept in brine for up to a week. It is a semi-soft cheese. Havarti cheese was initially created by Hanne Nielsen who operated an experimental farm called Havarthigaard. smooth and slightly brightsurfaced with a cream to yellow colour depending on type.. on ageing it becomes more salty and taste like hazelnut. in Øverød. but may vary seasonally to slightly yellow depending on the animal's diet. in the mid-19th century. lasagna.3 ) Havarti or Cream Havarti (Fløde Havarti in Danish) is a semi-soft Danish cow's milk cheese. The taste is buttery. north of Copenhagen. it is traditionally served the day it is made. grilled. much like Swiss cheese.. though some preshredded low-moisture mozzarella is sold with a shelf life of up to 6 months. Havarti has a buttery aroma and can be somewhat sharp in the stronger varieties. or served with sliced tomatoes and basil in .

resulting in Colby's characteristically mild flavor. Longhorn is the best known style of the American Colby cheeses. but is uncolored and softer. . Like most other cheeses.S. Colby cheeses are typically sold in half-rounds. this reduces the curd's acidity. Pinconning cheese is a sharp aged relative of Colby cheese. Colby is a softer. Colby is considered semi-hard (Sans-kendrall). Monterey Jack cheese is produced almost identically as Colby. the whey is replaced by water. it takes a little more than a U. moister.) Colby should not be aged. but does not undergo the cheddaring process. Colby dries out quickly. gallon of milk to produce just 1 pound (just over 8 liters for a kilogram) of cheese. The washed-curd process means that during the cooking time. Now available in both its original shape and also in rectangles and half rounds. and milder cheese than Cheddar because it is produced through a washed-curd process.Colby Colby is similar to Cheddar. ("Longhorn" cheese refers to a mild Cheddar or Colby cheese made into a long orange cylinder.

inoculated with cheese mold (Penicillium candidum or Penicillium camemberti) and/or Brevibacterium linens. sometimes with a traditional perforated ladle called a "pelle à brie". Country : France. The curd is obtained by adding rennet to raw milk and heating it to a maximum temperature of 37 °C (98. Originally.Soft cheese skimmed milk. Milk : cow milk. The 20 cm mold is filled with several thin layers of cheese and drained for approximately 18 hours. this cheese was dry and yellow-brown. Texture : soft Fat content : 45 % Recommended Wine : Bourgogne 2) A very famous French cheese. Milk : cow milk. He liked it a lot and from that moment Camembert became known by its contemporary name. The cheese is then taken out of the molds. and aged in a cellar for at least four to five weeks.6 °F). saying that it came from village called Camembert. Texture : Soft 1 ) Brie : Brie may be produced from whole or semi- . At the beginning of its ripening. The cheese is then cast into molds. In 1855 one of Marie Harel's daughters presented Napoleon with a piece of that cheese. salted. Camembert is crumbly and soft and gets creamier over time (usually 2-3 weeks). Country : France. but after a few modifications it became softer and more earthy. A genuine Camembert has a delicate salty taste. Camembert dates back to the 18th century and is named for a Norman village in which there is a statue of the creator of this particular variety (Marie Harel).

creamy. cream cheese from the Lombardy region of southern Italy. Texture : Soft. vegetarian. but supple and spreadable and it is added to famous Italian desserts. Country : France. Frequently it is used for the preparation of certain dishes and sauces. To make Mascarporne cheese tartaric acid (natural vegetable acid derived from the seed of the tamarind tree) is needed. wood ashes. In fact. it is not cheese at all. the cream is gently heated. fresh. but rather the result of a culture being added to the cream skimmed off the milk. used in the production of Parmesan. described as a curd cheese. Country : Italy. Milk : cow milk. This whitish to straw-yellow.3) »   Bouyssou   « French cheese of rectangular shape made from cow's milk. sometimes accompanied by cognac. however. This cheese is only produced by the farmers in the Averyron region of France. Fat content : 75 % . white. It matures in freshly ground. Texture : soft Recommended Wine : Marcillac Rouge 4) »  Mascarpone    « A soft. It is. although it is made in much the same way as yogurt. mild fresh cheese is compact. After the culture has been added. The period of ripening is about three weeks and it tastes delicious with a glass of red wine. then allowed to mature and thicken. It takes only a few days to ripen and has a fat content of 75 per cent. Milk : cow milk. The taste is characteristic of the arid land and tender fruits of the south of France.

It is a basin-shaped cheese.5 ) »   Ricotta   « Traditional. pure white and wet but not sticky. the proteins (lactalbumin) are skimmed off and put in a wicker basket to drain for two days after which the "cheese" is ready for market. Good Ricotta should be firm. creamy and mild and is primarily used as an ingredient in lasagna. ricotta piemontese (cow's milk whey + 10% milk) and ricotta romana (a byproduct of Romano cheese production). whey cheese made from cow's milk. It is white. neither salted nor ripened. moist. delicate grains. Citric acid is added to encourage destabilization and separation and the temperature is quickly raised to 185 degrees F. There are three distinct varieties of ricotta: ricotta salata moliterna (ewe's milk whey). It is primarily made with cow's milk whey which is heated to 170 degrees F. Recommended Wine: Italy milk Sauvignon Texture: Milk: Country: Muscadet soft cow Blanc . creamery. not solid and consist of a mass of fine. Proteins from the whey separate rise and coagulate.

pale ivory. Ripe Roquefort is creamy.Blue »   Roquefort   cheeseconsidered as the "King« of cheeses". thick and white on the inside and have a thin. It is the quality of the milk. It has a Roquefort is tingly pungent taste and ranks among blue cheeses. Stilton is milder than Roquefort or Gorgonzola. served with a Port Wine. The ripening of the cheeses is in the natural. It has narrow. the processing of the curd. damp aired caves found under the village of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon. Country : England. It has the cylinder-shape with sticky. Rennet is added to milk at 86 degrees F and after an hour curd forms. One week passes and then Stiltons are allowed to mature for 6 to 8 months. the adding of “Penicillium roqueforti” and finally the ripening in natural caves unique and remarkable cheese. The curd is drained and moulded. natural rind. There are two types of Stilton: Blue and White Stilton. Only the milk of specially bred sheep is used and is ripened in limestone caverns. and is equally excellent for crumbling over salads or as a dessert cheese. burntorange skin. Country : France Milk : ewe milk that give us this Recommended Wine : Zinfandel Port Texture : semi-hard »   Stilton   « Historically referred to as "The King of Cheeses" Stilton is a blue-mould cheese with a rich and mellow flavor and a piquant aftertaste. Milk : cow milk. blue-green veins and a wrinkled rind which is not edible. Texture : semi-hard Fat content : 55 % .

Gorgonzola is also excellent in salads and dips. The moist. blue cheese made from cow's milk. The greenish-blue penicillin mould imparts a sharp. At about four weeks the cheeses are pierced with thick needles to encourage the spread of the mould. brown or white moulds. depending on age. The taste ranges from mild to sharp. The cheese is usually wrapped in foil to keep it moist. natural rind may develop some gray. with the blue in fairly thick. Gorgonzola ripens in three to six months. creamery. The aroma is of mushrooms and the taste is mildly spicy. Country : Denmark. Country : Italy. according to which the cheese has its name. Enriched with cream. either from unpasteurized or pasteurized milk to which the mould is added. horizontal lines. Texture : soft. The cheese was developed in 1960's. blue cheese. Fat content : 70 % . creamery and co-operative. spicy flavor and provides an excellent contrast to the rich. It is a half-moon-shaped cheese. Gorgonzola is made in the northern Italian village. Its color ranges from white to straw-yellow with an unmistakable marbled green or bluish-green mould. Texture : Soft. Milk : cow milk. Blue Castello has a Brie-like texture. creamy cheese. Milk : cow milk.»   Gorgonzola   « Gorgonzola is a traditional. Fat content : 48 % »   Blue Castello   « Modern.

many things are taken into account when deciding what condiments fare best with which cheeses. cherries. grapes. cheese is wonderful on its own. but like pairing the right wine with the right food. Nuts: Caramelized walnuts. Olives: Serve a variety of sizes. one could pair Italian condiments with Italian cheeses. nut bread. cheese condiments can bring out unique aspects of both the cheese and the condiment. figs. pairing with a contrasting flavor is more exciting. Bread: Baguette. Crackers:  Savory crackers. Similar to wine pairings. . peaches and raisins. fig cakes (pan de higo) and date cakes. water crackers. apple and grown up with. semolina raisin bread. while with others. research. Some pairings are goat cheese or Brie with walnuts. the best idea is to find condiments that compliment the cheese. For example. cranberries . Fruits & Nuts There are many classic pairings Feta or goat cheese with pine Dried and fresh fruits and plain of both fruits and nuts with nuts and green apple. peasant bread. Dried Fruits: Apricots. olive bread. currant/raisin bread. textures and flavors. currants. Fresh Fruit: Apple and pear slices. or try to balance out the saltiness of an aged Parmigiano-Reggiano with the tart sweetness of a marmalade. black walnuts. or toasted nuts are the cheese specific cheeses—ask your “condiments” most people have cheese monger. figs and strawberries. Marcona almonds.Cheese and its accompaniments . In some cases. get a good Asiago with almonds. book on cheese or do online mango.

English and Scottish mustards pair well with strong Cheddars like Gloucester. Prepared mustard gets some of its flavor and consistency from vinegar. A thick sweet syrup produced by bees and extracted from their hives. Try it with strong blue cheeses like Cabrales. Mustards Look for French and English mustards.Honey Think “beyond the bear” and look for infused varieties. These flavored mustards are also delicious with cheese. Roquefort. and with fresh goat cheeses. truffle and eucalyptus. white wine. honey is excellent on a variety of cheeses. Prepared mustard is made from the seeds of the mustard plant. which are ground into a powder and then combined with wet ingredients and spices. and the “cheese condiment” most of us already have in the kitchen. honey. Tea Together sells Italian infused honeys in flavors like orange. Many mustards contain other ingredients like horseradish. Gorgonzola and Stilton. Both offer a good degree of heat while maintaining a level of complexity that will compliment the cheese. whole mustard seeds or fruit. . Pair the slightly more delicate French mustards with Port Salut or the grassy Le Berger Basque. turmeric and sugar. Honey is a delicious counterpoint with both strong and mild cheese. pear.

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