ERIK ERIKSON 19021902-1994

PSYCHOSOCIAL
THEORY
By: Maria Elena B. Delfin



He was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, 1902. During his childhood, and his early adulthood, he was Erik Homberger, and his parents kept the details of his birth a secret. secret. 

 When

he became an American citizen, he officially changed his name to Erik Erikson. Erikson's son.



At 25, his friend Peter Blos -- a fellow artist and, later, psychoanalyst -suggested he apply for a teaching position at an experimental school for American students run by Dorothy Burlingham, a friend of Anna Freud

 Besides teaching art. he gathered a certificate in Montessori education and one from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. He was psychoanalyzed by Anna Freud herself. .

Erikson. . According to psychologist Erik H. each individual passes through eight developmental stages. But they go through dramatic changes on the way to adulthood and old age. Erickson¶s Theory of Developmental Stages Basic Theory:  Babies are born with some basic capabilities and distinct temperaments.

the sequence of the stages are set by nature. To Erikson.Erickson¶s Theory of Developmental Stages Each developmental stage is characterized by a different psychological "crisis". which must be resolved by the individual before the individual can move on to the next stage. the outcome will be more struggles with that issue later in life. It is within the set limits that nurture works its ways. If the person copes with a particular crisis in a maladaptive manner. .

isolated mistrustful Hope . jealous. insecure. hostile.Stage 1: Infant Trust vs Mistrust Ages 0 to 1 Year    Infancy infants need to feel cared for and loved trust within and without .trust of self as well as others rejected children are more fearful. aggressive.

anger.as well as independence Will .rage. hatred .Stage 2: Toddler Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt Ages 1 to 3 Years    awareness of emerging skills develops need to be taken seriously positive resolution includes acceptance of negative feelings .

Stage 3: Preschooler Initiative vs Guilt Ages 3 to 6 years Preschool Age    child decides what kind of person to be initiative comes with freedom and opportunity to initiate motor play and intellectual pursuits guilt comes from being made to feel bad about self-initiated selfactivities and ideas Purpose .

math physical tasks: sports. manual dexterity social tasks: making friends. writing. following rules. sharing ideas industry is orientation toward working. producing Competence . doing.Stage 4: School-age Child Industry vs Inferiority Ages 6 to 12 Years     School Age academic tasks: reading.

career  lack of identity = inability to progress successfully Fidelity/commitment  .Stage 5: Adolescent Identity vs Role Confusion Ages 12 to 18 Years Adolescence & Teen time of psychological and physiological revolution  firm self-image is formed self must develop strong identity sexual. personal  time to select work goals.

Stage 6: Young Adult Intimacy vs Isolation Ages 18 to 35 Year Early     Adulthood intimacy is the ability to care deeply for another person the ability to share one¶s true feelings the ability to give and receive affection isolation leads to selfselfabsorption and ³social death´ death´ Love .

Stage 7: Middle-Age Adult Generativity vs Stagnation Ages 35 to 55 Middle Age  become more aware of eventual death  question life-style. goals choices life motivation to have impact outside of family  care represents concern for others and need to give to next generation  stagnation reflects preoccupation with self only Care .

one does not find peace wisdom .Stage 8: Older Adult Integrity vs Despair Ages 55 to 65 to death Old age  wisdom comes from a meaningful life  integrity reflects the life well-lived well with integrity. one can accept death  despair reflects a wish to do it over correctly  with despair.

Albert Bandura 19251925.Present Social Learning Theory .

A. .D. from the University of Iowa 1953. accepted a position as a Psychology professor at the University of Stanford and he is currently employed there today. Canada in 1925 received his B. degree from the University of British Columbia in 1949 Obtained his PH.    born in Mundare.

modeling.  . media or environment. He believed that aggression is learned through a process called behavior modeling. He argued that individuals especially children learn aggressive responses from observing others either personally.

. ³ Children learn to act  aggressive when they model their behavior after violent acts of adults. He believed that aggression reinforced by family members was the most prominent source of behavior modeling. especially family members.

.The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory. Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning.

a young woman. One of his famous experiment is the ³Bobo doll studies. essentially beating up a bobo doll. He made a film of one of his students. .

Step 1: Attention Processes -Developing cognitive processes to pay attention to a model.more developed modelprocesses allow for better attention -Must observe the model accurately enough to imitate behavior .

. Step 2: Retention Processes -To later imitate behavior. must remember aspects of the behavior Retain information in 2 ways: Imaginal internal representation: Visual image Ex: Forming a mental picture Verbal system: Verbal description of behavior Ex: Silently rehearsing steps in behavior .

practice behaviorbehaviors Receive feedback on accuracy of behaviorbehavior.how well have you imitated the modeled behavior? Important in mastering difficult skills  Ex: Driving a car   .Step 3: Production Processes  Taking imaginal and verbal representations and translating into overt behavior.

Step 4: Incentive and Motivational Processes  With incentives. pay more attention. observation more quickly becomes action. retain more information Incentive to learn influenced by anticipated reinforcements  .

c. promised reinforcements (incentives) that we can imagine. . traditional behaviorism. b.a.seeing and recalling the model being reinforced. past reinforcement. ala reinforcement. vicarious/shocking reinforcement -.

giving you reasons not to imitate someone:  past punishment. promised punishment (threats).The negative motivations are there as well. vicarious punishment   .

is the other ³workhorse´ of human personality. Here Bandura suggests three steps .controlling our own behavior -.SelfSelf-regulation  -.

and keep tabs on it.We look at ourselves. .1. our behavior. Self-Observation Self.

´ Or we can create arbitrary ones. such as ³rules of etiquette.´ Or we can compete with others. We compare what we see with a standard. like ³I¶ll read a book a week.2. Judgment. Judgment. or with ourselves. . we can compare our performance with traditional standards. For example.

3. you give yourself punishing selfself-responses. you give yourself rewarding selfselfresponses. Self- If you did well in comparison with your standard. These selfselfresponses can range from the obvious (treating yourself to a sundae or working late) to the more covert (feelings of pride or shame). If you did poorly. Self-response. .

inactivity -. or even the ultimate escape. compensation ± a superiority complex. suicide. c. depression. . boredom. for example. and delusions of grandeur. television fantasies.drugs and alcohol.apathy.Bandura sees three likely results of excessive selfselfpunishment: a. escape -. b.

Bandura¶s recommendations to those who suffer from poor selfselfconcepts come straight from the three steps of self-regulation: self1. Regarding self-observation self-.know thyself! Make sure you have an accurate picture of your behavior .

are meaningless.make sure your standards aren¶t set too high. Regarding standards -. Don¶t set yourself up for failure! Standards that are too low. on the other hand. . 3. Celebrate your victories.2. Regarding self-response -selfuse self-rewards. meaningless. don¶t dwell on your failures. not selfselfselfpunishments.

Therapy  SelfSelf-control therapy The ideas behind selfselfregulation have been incorporated into a therapy technique called self-control selftherapy. . .

SelfSelf-observation requires that you keep close tabs on your behavior. .use diary approach . both before you begin changes and after. 1. Behavioral charts.

 2. Taking your lead from your behavioral charts and diaries. you can begin to alter your environment. . planning. Environmental planning.

3.´ . Self-contracts. for example). SelfFinally. and the details should be spelled out very explicitly: ³I will go out to dinner on Saturday night if I smoke fewer cigarettes this week than last week. and possibly punish yourself when you do not. you arrange to reward yourself when you adhere to your plan. I will do paperwork instead if I do not. These contracts should be written down and witnessed (by your therapist.

if you can get someone with a psychological disorder to observe someone dealing with the same issues in a more productive fashion. the first person will learn by modeling .Modeling therapy  The theory is that.

Socialization Process .

.Socialization  is the process by which children and adults learn from others. and most people continue their social learning all through life (unless some mental or physical disability slows or stops the learning process). We begin learning from others during the early days of life.

.is easily seen when looking at the young of almost any mammalian species (and some birds). play and discover the social world around them.Natural socialization  occurs when infants and youngsters explore. .

 Planned socialization occurs when other people take actions designed to teach or train others -.from infancy on. people have been making plans for teaching or training others.. and all through history. . -is mostly a human phenomenon.

loving care.Positive socialization  is the type of social learning that is based on pleasurable and exciting experiences. and rewarding opportunities. . We tend to like the people who fill our social learning processes with positive motivation.

 Negative socialization occurs when others use punishment. harsh criticisms or anger to try to "teach us a lesson." lesson." .

h http://www.htm http://www.fsu.htm http://www.com/eriksons-stages of http://www.about.h tml tml  .com/od/theoriesofpersonality /a/psychosocial.html http://www.learning-theories.criminology.htm http://www.businessballs.edu/crimtheory/bandura.fsu.com/stages/organize/ Erikson.com/eriksonsdevelopment.com/erik_erikson_psychos ocial_theory.htmlp://honolulu.References       Child and Adolescent Psychology Book.edu/crimtheory/bandura.psychpage.criminology. http://www.com/learning/library/person/er ikson.hawaii.edu/intranet/co mmittees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/erikson.htm http://psychology.learningplaceonline.learning-theories.

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