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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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to compress time and accelerate the failure mechanisms in a reasonable test period so that product reliability can be assessed the only way to accelerate time is to stress potential failure modes failure occurs when the stress exceeds the products strength in a products population, the strength is generally distributed and usually degrades over time

applying stress simply simulates aging. increasing stress increases the unreliability and improves the chances for failure occurring in a shorter period of time a smaller sample population of devices can be tested with an increased probability of finding failure used extensively to help make predictions - limited when testing small sample sizes difficult to design an efficient experiment that yields enough failures so that the measures of uncertainty in the predictions are not too large

t is the typical life of a failure mode under normal use conditions t is the life at accelerated test conditions describe time compression may also be put in terms of parameter change model - Arrhenius reaction rate

Particles have a certain probability to overcome the potential barrier of height Ea and become activated into the reaction taking place As more and more elementary particles are consumed, a catastrophic event takes place at some point in the macroscopic world.

The rate is assumed to be inversely proportional to the time that this will occur

historical information provides typical values for Ea, or these may be obtained through experimentation

to estimate test time compression and devise test plans both acceleration models and statistical analysis are required accelerated verification tests in microelectronics are designed to stress four types of failure mechanisms/modes thermomechanical mechanisms nonmoisturerelated thermochemical mechanisms moisture-related thermochemical mechanisms mechanical mechanisms most common tests are TCT, HTOL, THB, and Vibration provide a realistic verification test procedure prior to accelerated reliability testing, devices should receive a preconditioning to simulate these stresses

devices are subjected to elevated temperature under bias for an extended period of time assumed that the dominant thermally accelerated failure mechanisms will follow the classical Arrhenius relationship Arrhenius function is used in reliability to model temperaturedependent failure-rate mechanisms, and expresses a number of different physical thermodynamic phenomena activation energy parameter expresses a characteristic value that can be related to thermally activated failure processes

Example 1 Using the HTOL model Problem: Estimate the test time to simulate 10 years of life in an HTOL test. The activation energies for the potential failure modes are unknown. Therefore, assume a conservative value of 0.7 eV for the activation energy. The device junction temperature rise is measured to be 15C above ambient. The test temperature is 110C, and the nominal use temperature is 40C. Solution:

tests are performed to determine a failure mechanisms activation energy devices are separately tested in at least two different temperatures three or more temperatures can be used, then test results can be plotted on a semilog graph, and the data are fitted using a leastsquares method plot the MTTF on the semilog axis versus 1/T according to the equation the slope is Ea/KB, and the activation energy can be determined

Example 2 Determining the activation energy Problem: The MTTFs at 250C and 200C are 731 and 10,400 hours. Show that the activation energy is 1.13 eV and that the MTTF at 125C is 1.95 106 hours as indicated in the figure. Solution: the activation energy is

the MTTF (at 125C) = MTTF (at 200C) AT = 10400 187.7 = 1.951 106 hours

Temperature-Humidity-BiasAcceleration Model

in THB, test devices are put at elevated temperatures and humidity under bias for an extended period of time most common THB test is a 1000-hour test at 85C and 85 percent Relative Humidity most common THB models is a Peck model Peck model includes a relationship between life-and-temperature (Arrhenius model) and life-and-humidity (Peck model), so that the product of the two separable factors yields an overall acceleration factor.

Temperature-Humidity-BiasAcceleration Model

Example 3 Using the THB model Problem: If a THB test is performed at 85%RH and 85C, what is the acceleration factor relative to a 40%RH and 25C environment, assuming an activation energy of 0.7 eV and a humidity constant of 2.66? How many test hours are required to simulate 10 years of life? How many test hours are required in a HAST chamber to simulate 10 years of life at 85%RH and 110C? Solution: temperature acceleration factor humidity acceleration factor combined temperature humidity acceleration factor

Temperature-Humidity-BiasAcceleration Model

simulated test time to equate this to 10 years (87,600 hours) is Test time = (87,600 hours/713) = 123 hours

humidity acceleration factor is the same as in the first part of the problem

simulated test time to equate this HAST test to 10 years is HAST test time = (87600 hours/3132) = 28 hours

in TCT, test devices are subjected to a number of cycles of alternate high and low temperature extremes cyclic stress produced in temperature cycling is related to thermal expansion and contraction undergone in the material most widely used model is the Coffin-Manson model used for estimating the temperature cycle acceleration factor reasonably estimating the acceleration factor depends on the failures being caused by fatigue subject to the CoffinManson law for cyclic strain versus the number of cycles to failure values between 2 to 4 have typically been reported in the literature for K values are related to the specific design Temperature Cycle acceleration and linearized cycle to failure models

Example 4 Using the Temperature Cycle model Problem: Estimate the number of test temperature cycles to simulate 10 years of life in the field for a test that cycles between 55C and 150C. It is estimated that field conditions cycle nominally between 5C to 25C twice a day. Assume a conservative temperature cycle exponent of 2.5. Solution: temperature cycle acceleration factor In 10 years, the device will be cycled 2 365 10 = 7300 cycles number of test cycles to simulate this

in Vibration, devices are mounted on a dynamic shaker table and subject to either a random or sinusoidal-type vibration profile common random vibration tests are most frequently specified in terms of Power Spectral Density (PSD) levels related to a similar particular use environment PSD function describes the distribution of vibration energy with respect to frequency estimates of time compression can be made once the use level estimate and spectral density profile are established it is important to understand the failure mechanism since, in a random vibration-loading environment, the resonance of the material can dominate the fatigue life Example of common PSD test level

traditional classical time-compression model is a power law model traditional classical time-compression model is a power law model the model can be put in terms of either random or sinusoidal-resonance G-stress loading - PSD level is directly proportional to stress level at the resonance frequency (W~G2) In the model, the fatigue parameter is related to experimental slope of the stress to cycles to failure data the fatigue parameter is related to experimental slope of the stress to cycles to failure data. This exponent varies depending on the fatigue life of the Vibration acceleration and linearized materials involved time to failure models

Example 5 Using the Vibration model Problem: Estimate the test time to simulate 10 years of life in the field for an assembly that is tested to a Level 4 PSD random vibration test condition, shown in Figure 5. It is estimated that the assembly will undergo a worst-case Level 1type random vibration exposure 1 percent of the assemblys life. The rest of the assemblys life is relatively benign in terms of vibration exposure. Solution: Since Level 4 has a PSD of 0.12 G2/Hz, then Level 1 is 0.03 G2/Hz vibration acceleration factor 87,600 0.01 = 876 hours TStress= TUse /AV = 876/256 = 3.5 hours AV = (WStress /WUse)Mb = (0.12/0.03)4 = 256 In 10 years, the device will be exposed to a Level 1 vibration for about

Step-Stress Testing

alternative test to life testing small sample of devices is exposed to a series of successively higher and higher steps of stress at the end of each stress level, measurements are made to assess the results to the device measurements could be simply to assess if a catastrophic failure has occurred or to measure the resulting parameter shift due to the steps stress for simpler data analysis- constant time periods are commonly used for each stepstress period failure distribution over the stress levels is usually experimentally found to be normally distributed the plot of CDF versus stress should be plotted on a normal probability plot if the data does not fit a normal probability plot, other distributions should be tried

Step-Stress Testing

Reasons for performing a step-stress test: Aging information can be obtained in a relatively short period of time. Common step-stress tests take about 1 to 2 weeks, depending on the objective. Establish a baseline for future tests. For example, if a process changes, quick comparisons can be made between the old process and the new process. Otherwise, catastrophic information is used. Failure mechanisms and design weaknesses can be identified along with material limitations. Failure-mode information can provide opportunities for reliability growth. Data analysis can provide accurate information on the stress distribution in which the median-failure stress and stress standard deviation can be obtained. This then provides an MTTF estimate at the median failure stress level. Concept of Step-Stress Testing

catastrophic data are plotted on a normal probability plot with the cumulative failure percent versus 1/temperature (in K) the mean stress points - where 50 percent of the distribution has failed mean stress points provides an MTTF estimate for the step time mean stress points can be used to estimate the activation energy for the failure mode Since step-stress data has been carried out in constant time steps, some accumulation of residual effects at each step occurs from previous stress-steps - the data slightly off step-stress correction can improve accuracy of estimating the mean stress point

Example 6 Temperature Step-Stress analysis Problem: The data for two Temperature Step-Stress times from an experiment is provided in Table 1. Twenty-four parts were tested. In the first Temperature Step-Stress test, 10-hour steps were used; in the second experiment, 150hour steps were used. Plot the data, determine the mean stress values, and estimate the activation energy for the two tests. Provide a correction for each data point and re-estimate the activation energy from the correction. When is it reasonable to provide a correction? What is the estimated MTTF at 25C?

Example 6 Temperature Step-Stress analysis Solution: The data has been plotted previously in Figure 8, and the mean stress values are 225C and 139C for the 10-hour and 150-hour tests, respectively. These times are MTTF values at their respective temperatures. With these values, an activation energy can be obtained similarly to Example 2

In this experiment, the stress steps are 30C apart, which is borderline. Therefore, a correction may improve accuracy. The accuracy of this data can be improved with a TSS correction First, correct the 150C data point. Devices received 10 hours of exposure at 150C, but they had already been exposed to 10 hours at 120C.

Temperature Step-Stress (TSS) Example 6 Temperature Step-Stress analysis Solution: According to Example 1, the acceleration factor between 120C and 150C with an Ea of 0.56 is

Therefore, devices failing at the 150C point had received 10 hours at 120C and now 10 hours at 150C prior to failing. The total exposure is actually equivalent to 10 + 10/3.23 = 13.1 hours at 150C. To replot this data point more accurately as a 10-hour failure point, find the temperature at 10 hours that is equivalent to 13.1 hours of exposure at 150C.

Solution: In a similar manner, one can estimate that the 10-hour equivalent temperature at 180C is 192.6C

Corrected Temperature tep-Stress data The data can now be replotted. The means obtained from the corrected plot are 224C and 143C for the 10hour and 150-hour steps, respectively. The new estimate with these corrected temperatures is

Using this value, the MTTF at 25C can be predicted. The acceleration factor between 25C and 143C is 719. Since the MTTF at 143C is 150 hours, then at 25C the predicted MTTF is 107,813 hours (= 719 150). CONCLUSSION If devices are measured only once (at the end of each step), the exact failure time is not known. In this case, it is probably not worth providing a correction If devices are monitored during the test period and exact failure times are recorded, then the correction can be helpful.

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