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Lesson 6: Magnetic and Gyrocompasses

Lesson 9: Magnetic and Gyrocompasses

AGENDA:
Directional reference systems The Magnetic Compass Digital Flux Gate Magnetic Compass Magnetic Error (Variation and Deviation) Compass Conversion (T M) The Gyrocompass Gyrocompass Error

Applicable reading: Hobbs pg. 148-165.

Directional Reference Systems

Directional References
Relative Bearings (R) = bearings measured with reference to the ships longitudinal axis Magnetic Bearings (M) = bearings measured with respect to magnetic north. True Bearings (T) = bearings measured with respect to true of geographic north.

Ships Head (or heading)


a special bearing denoting the direction in which the ship is pointing.

000 T 270 T 180 T 090 T

270 R

180 R

000 R

090 R

Magnetic Compasses

Operation Magnets within the compass tend to align themselves with the earths magnetic lines of force.

Construction The compass consists of a circular card, graduated with 360 degreed around the face. A pair of magnets is attached to the underside of the card, beneath the north-south axis. The card floats in the fluid to reduce friction and dampen the vibrations caused by ships movement.

Advantages of Magnetic Compasses

Little maintenance required No power source required Durability

Disadvantages of Magnetic Compasses

Does not seek True North Affected by surrounding materials Cannot be used near the poles

Magnetic Compass Error: VARIATION

Variation: the angle between a magnetic line of force and a geographic (true) meridian at any location on the earth. Causes:
Variation exists because the earths magnetic and geographic poles are not co-located. Magnetic anomalies in the earths crust also contribute to variation.

True North Pole

Magnetic North Pole Notice that the two poles arent together. The magnetic compass points to the magnetic pole, and this gives us VARIATION.

COMPASS ROSE
Used to Determine Magnetic and True Courses. Outer ring is in True. Inner Ring is in Magnetic.

Variation for any given locality is shown on the compass rose of the chart for that area, together with the amount of annual increase or decrease.

Variation changes from year to year as the earths magnetic poles tend to wander. ALWAYS use the compass rose nearest your current DR position.

2.2-8

Magnetic Compass Error: DEVIATION

Deviation: the angle between the actual magnetic meridian and the north line on the compass card. Causes:
Deviation is caused by the interaction of the ships metallic structure and electrical systems with the earths magnetic field.

Magnetic Compass Error: Deviation

Deviation can be compensated for but never eliminated. A compass table is used, which provides the value of deviation for every 15 degrees of ships head. Entering argument for the table is oM and degaussing on or off (DG ON/DG OFF)

Digital Flux Gate


Digital Compass System MV-103AC
Junction Box/ Control Unit

Remote Display
2.3-26

Digital Flux Gate Compass: Antennae is located at the top of the mast to remove metallic effects of the hull. Allows Deviation to be Zeroed by auto-compensation Guides to Magnetic North Variation may be manually or automatically entered.

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ADD EAST (SUBRACT WEST)

D M V T
ADD WEST (SUBRACT EAST)

Timely Vessels make Distance Countat War

Timely Vessels Make Distance Countat War


ADD WEST (SUBRACT EAST)

T V M D C
T R U E V A R I A T I O N M A G N E T I C D E V I A T I O N C O M P A S S

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ADD EAST (SUBRACT WEST)

C
C O M P A S S

D M V T
D E V I A T I O N M A G N E T I C V A R I A T I O N T R U E

Magnetic/Gyro Compass Practical Problems


G
#1 170.5 #2 069 #3 339

E 1.5E 1W 1W 1.5E

M 160 056 326

172 068 338


349

12E 12E
12E 12E 12E

#4 347.5
#5 030

1.5E 031.5

337 019.5 1.5E

160 0 0.5W 056.5 1E 325 1W 338 018

Compass Error for #1= Compass Error for #2= Compass Error for #3= Compass Error for #4= Compass Error for #5=

12E 11.5E 13E 11E 13.5E

THE GYRO COMPASS

USS O'Flaherty DE 340 IC Room

Gyrocompasses

A true north-seeking gyroscope The gyro spins at a very high velocity, and its spin axis remains aligned with terrestrial meridians. The gyro has three axes:
spin axis torque axis precession axis

Gyroscope Theory

Gyrocompass Pros and Cons


Advantages:

Disadvantages

Seeks geographic (true) north instead of magnetic.

Intricate electronic instrument.

Can be used near the earths magnetic poles, where magnetic compass is useless. Unaffected by surrounding metals.
Signal can be fed to other systems (weapons, nav).

Requires a constant source of electrical power and is sensitive to power fluctuations. Requires periodic maintenance by qualified technicians.

Terms
Compass course: The heading indicated by the magnetic compass toward where the ship is traveling.

Compass Error (CE): The Sum of Variation and Deviation

Compass Heading: The Course That the Ship Is Steering, Using the Ships Magnetic Compass

- This Heading Includes the Compass Error

Terms Associated With the Gyro Compass

True North:
Direction referenced to True North, measured clockwise from 000 to 359

Gyro Error (East or West):


The Difference between True North and the Gyro Compass Reading

Gyro Repeater Error:


The Difference between the Gyro Compass and Gyro Repeater

Gyrocompass Error

Although the gyrocompass is a very accurate instrument, it normally has a small error associated with its readings. (normally less than 1o) Like the magnetic compass, this error is expressed as east or west.

Determining Gyro Error

Methods of determining gyro error:


Celestial Methods (to be discussed later) Observing a visual range Observing bearing to an object while at a known location Heading while pierside Trial and error adjustment of three or more simultaneous LOPs Compare to gyrocompass of known error

Gyrocompass Error

To remember how to use the gyro error, two memory aids are commonly used:
If Gyro is best (higher), error is west; If Gyro is least (lower), error is east.

G.E.T. -- Gyro + East = True

Applying Gyro Error


Correcting (Gyro Compass to True)

+E / -W
G
#1
#2 #3

T 016 336 266

015
335 265

1.0E
1.0E 1.0E

Gyro Compass best = Error West Gyro Compass least = Error East

Applying Gyro Error


Correcting (Gyro Compass to True)

+E / -W
G
#4
#5 #6

T 013.5 333.5 263.5

015
335 265

1.5W
1.5W 1.5W

Gyro Compass best = Error West Gyro Compass least = Error East

REVIEW
Relative Bearings (R) = bearings measured with reference to the ships longitudinal axis Magnetic Bearings (M) = bearings measured with respect to magnetic north. True Bearings (T) = bearings measured with respect to true of geographic north. Be able to apply Gyro Error Be able to compensate for variation and deviation using C D M V T

QUESTIONS?