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Theory of Atom

 Atom Atom is the smallest part of element  John Dalton Theory 1. Each elements consist a small particles which is called atom 2. Atoms of each element have a same of characteristic, size and mass 3. Compound is a substance that consist of more than one atom.

4. Chemical reaction is not change the characteristic of atom, but only change the composition only.

Rutherford Theory “Mass of atom center in nucleus, which have a positive charge”

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Nucleus

Niels Bohr Theory Atom have a central nucleus made up of protons and neutrons. And electrons move around the nucleus.

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J Thomson. 1932 ----> neutron . 1911 ----> proton  James Chadwick.THE INVENTOR OF PARTICLE SUB ATOMIC  J. 1897 -----> electron  Ernest Rutherford.

PARTICLE SUB ATOMIC Electron ( negative charge) + + - + Proton (positive charge) Neutron ( neutral/ have no charge) Figure : Model Atom Electron symbol Proton symbol Neutron symbol (e) (p) (n) .

sehing ga massanya = 0 sma .Mass And The Charge of Sub Atomic Particle N o Particle Proton Neutron Electron Mass 1 1 0 Charge +1 0 -1 1 2 3 Catatan : Massa adalah dalam satuan massa atom (sma) Massa elektron sangat kecil.

THE MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER .

Mass number shows the total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus.WRITE THE SYMBOL OF ATOM Z A x X = Name of Atom/Chemical Symbol A = Atomic Number Z = Mass Number Atomic Number shows the number of protons or electrons in its atom. .

23 Name of Atom Natrium/ Sodium Na 11 Number of Protons = 11 Number of Electron = 11 Number of Neutron = 23-11 = 12 REMEMBER! Mass Number = Protons + Neutrons 35 Name of Atom is chlor Cl 17 Number of Proton = 17 Number of Electron = 17 Number of Neutron = 35 – 17 = 18 .

Configuration of Electron Skin 1 (2 electron) Skin 2 (8 electron) - + - Skin 3 (18 electron) Skin 4 (32 electron) .

2e 11p 12n 8e 1e 11 electron + . Example : Atom Natrium (Na). Number of electron 11.

2e 17p 17n 8e 7e 17 elektron + . Example : Atom Khlorin (Cl). Number of electron 17.

Theory of Ion Electron outside leave atom + Atom become the positive charge + - This state is called ION POSITIVE (KATION) Atom get electron from outside + Atom become the negative charge + - - This state is called ION NEGATIVE (ANION) .

so that formed Ion Na+ .Ionisasi atom Natrium (Na) Atom Natrium have 11 electron with configuration : 1e Skin 1 Skin 2 2e 8e Skin 3 1e 11p 2e 8e 1e outside will be discharge.

so that formed of ion Cl ¯ . Ionisasi atom Khlorin (Cl) 1e 7e Atom Chlorin have 17 electron with configuration : 11p Skin1 2e Skin 2 8e Skin 3 7e 2e 8e Outside orbit of electron catch electron from other.

Molecule of element Molecule of Compound .  Molecule of Compound A molecule is composed of different atoms.Molecule of element and Molecule of compound of Element  Molecule A molecule that is composed of similar atoms.

S. HBr.Monoatomic Element ( He. P4 Diatomic Compound Compound (NaCl. Fe. dll) Element Molecule Diatomic Element (O2. HCl. KCl. NaOH. H2. dll) Poliatomic Compound (H2SO4. Ca.C6H12O6) . N2. dll) Poliatomic Element (O3.

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isobar.Isotopes. The symbol of Lithium : Li-6 or Li-7 . dan Isoton The atoms of an element are not all alike. Lithium have two isotopes with mass number 6 and 7. Some have more neutrons than others. These different versions of the element are called isotopes.

Isotop. Example : 3 4 He 2 and 2 He . isobar. dan Isoton Isotopes Isotopes have different mass numbers but the same atomic number.

Example : 14 14 C 6 and 7 N . Isobar Isobar have different atomic number but the same mass number.

 Isoton Isoton have different both atomic number and mass number but the same amount of neutrons. Example : 13 6 14 C and 7 N .