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# CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

SAMPLING
is the process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the entire population.

## TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH SAMPLING

A population is the entire aggregation of cases in which a researcher is interested. Sample is a subset of population elements. An element is the most basic unit about which information is collected.

SAMPLING DESIGNS
Probability sampling involves random selection in choosing the elements.
Nonprobability sampling involves nonrandom selection in choosing elements

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
CONVENIENCE SAMPLING, sometimes called as accidental sampling, entails using the most conveniently available people as study participants.
SNOWBALL / NETWORK / CHAIN SAMPLING

With this approach, early sample members are asked to identify and refer other people who meet the eligibility criteria.

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
QUOTA SAMPLING is one in which the researcher identifies population strata and determines how many participants are needed from each stratum.

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
PURPOSIVE SAMPLING, sometimes called as judgmental sampling, is done by selecting subjects who are judged to be typical of the population or particularly knowledgeable about the issues under study.

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING involves choosing samples from a sampling frame.

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING involves subdividing the population into homogenous subsets from which an appropriate number of elements are selected at random.

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
CLUSTER SAMPLING, also called as multistage, is done through successive random sampling of units.

PROBABILITY SAMPLING
SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING involves the selection of every kth case from a list or group.
Formula used: N k= n Where: N = size of the population n = desired sample size

SAMPLING DESIGN

NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING

## -Resulting sample is likely to represent the population more accurately

-Allows researcher to estimate the magnitude of sampling error

DATA COLLECTION

## MAJOR TYPES OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS

SELF-REPORTS A method by which information is gathered by questioning people.

## MAJOR TYPES OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS

OBSERVATION It can be done directly through the human senses or with the aid of technical apparatus in laboratories or in natural settings.

## MAJOR TYPES OF DATA COLLECTION METHODS

BIOPHYSIOLOGIC MEASURES Involves the use of specialized technical instruments or equipments in measuring physiologic and physical variables and, usually, specialized training in interpreting the results.