DEVIANCE

Pat Ray M. Dagapioso

What is Deviance?

Deviant Behavior
1. Behaviors that stray from the accepted norms, beliefs, values of a group. 2. Nonconformity of the social norms or the established standards of a group.

Deviant Behavior
3. Actions or behaviors that violate social norms including formally-enacted rules (crime) as well as informal violations of social norms (e.g., rejecting folkways and mores).

Deviant Behavior
Activity ½ sheet yellow paper: 1. Gather your reporting groups. 2. List all acts of deviancy you have done in your life up to now. 3. How do you feel when you commit those acts?

Characteristics of Deviant Behavior

Characteristics of Deviant Behavior
1. 2. 3. 4. Relative in every group Relative in time and place Can be justified May be:
a. Tolerated b. Approved c. Disapproved

Characteristics of Deviant Behavior
5. Can be viewed as pathological phenomenon 6. Deviance can be considered as greater societal problem

Types of Deviant Behavior

Types of Deviant Behavior
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Drug Addiction Juvenile Delinquency Alcoholism Prostitution Homosexuality Mental Aberrations

Types of Deviant Behavior
7. Abortion 8. Aberrant sexual behavior 9. Marital and Family Maladjustment

Why Deviant Behavior occurs?

Deviance, explained
Theories were postulated to explain deviance. 1. Cesare Lombroso (1911)
Lombroso states that people are born as criminals. People with large jaws, high cheekbones, good eyesight, and insensibility to pain are criminals.

Deviance, explained
2. Psychology: A. Result of personality disorder because of innner conflicts or inability to control impulses B. Form of aggression against others or against the society because of Frustration

Sociological Explanations
1. 2. 3. 4. Functionalist Perspective Conflict Theory Symbolic Interactionism Feminist Approach

Functionalist Perspective

Functionalist Perspective
1. Emile Durkheim 2. Robert Merton 3. Walter Reckless

Functionalist Perspective
1. Emile Durkheim (1897)
A. Deviance is a natural part of all societies and serves important functions. B. People in the society unites to oppose deviant behavior.

Functionalist Perspective
1. Emile Durkheim (1897)
C. Postulates ¶anomie· ² a state of normlessness D. Anomie ² results when there is too much norms to be followed. Person then becomes normless, nosense of belongingness. This results to other behaviors.

Functionalist Perspective
2. Robert Merton (1968) A. Deviance results from the differences and inconsistencies from norms. B. Merton questions if all peoples in the society has the same societal goals.

Functionalist Perspective
2. Robert Merton (1968) C. This can be explained in: Example: Becoming Rich
Deviant
Use of Drugs

Conformist
Education

Corruption

Hard Work

Functionalist Perspective
3. Walter Reckless (1967) A. Deviance and Conformity are both learned in the same process of socialization. B. Deviant behaviors occurs because there is a lack of social control to apprehend such behaviors.

Conflict Theory

Conflict Theory
Conflict theory postulates that deviance results as part of the struggle between the powerful groups v. the non-powerful groups.

Conflict Theory
1. Groups with interests and powers advocate rules that serve their interests. 2. This method of social control through (persuasion, law making) enhances the power of the elite groups.

Conflict Theory
3. What is criminal and what is not are defined by those in power. 4. The people who benefit the most are the ruling class.

Symbolic Interactionism

Symbolic Interactionism
Symbolic Interactionism focuses on labels, social meanings that is being attributed to deviant acts.

Symbolic Interactionism
1. Edwin Sutherland A. Cultural transmission has been liable for causing deviant behaviors. B. Deviant behavior is learned through interactions with a small intimate groups.

Symbolic Interactionism
1. Edwin Sutherland C. When a person interacts, mostly, with a deviant, he acquires his techniques, motives, desires. Thus becoming a deviant himself.

Symbolic Interactionism
2. Labeling Theory A. This theory focuses on how crime and deviance become defined and labeled, and its effect on a person being so labeled.

Symbolic Interactionism
2. Labeling Theory B. Once people are labeled as deviant, they are thrust into a deviant role and are reacted to by others as deviants.

Symbolic Interactionism
2. Labeling Theory C. After the commission of a deviant act, the person is labeled, and the individual is stigmatized. D. The person then becomes more deviant and is devoid of acting conventional acts.

Feminist Approach

Feminist Approach
Three schools of thought: A. Liberal B. Radical C. Socialist

Feminist Approach
Three schools of thought: A. Liberal Deviance is a rational response to gender discrimination experienced in marriage, workplace, and interpersonal relations.

Feminist Approach
Three schools of thought: B. Radical: Deviance is attributed to patriarchy. The double standard of moriality.

Feminist Approach
Three schools of thought: C. Socialist In capitalistic and patriarchal societies women receive low wages. This might result to prostitution, shoplifting or other deviant behaviors.

Summary of Deviancy Theories

Summary of Deviancy Theories
Functionalism Symbolic Interaction Conflict Theory Deviance creates social cohesion. Deviance is learned behavior. Dominant classes control the definition of deviance.

Summary of Deviancy Theories
Functionalism Symbolic Interaction Deviance results from structural strains in society. Deviance results from social labeling.

Deviance results from Conflict Theory inequality in society.

Summary of Deviancy Theories
Functionalism Occurs when attachment to social bonds is diminished Those with the power to assign deviant labels create deviance. Elite deviance goes largely unpunished.

Symbolic Interaction Conflict Theory

Drug Abuse

Drug Abuse
Drug: Any substance that brings about, physical, emotional, or behavioral changes in the person taking it. The change must result to the impairement of a person·s physical, emotional, mental, behavioral and social costitutions.

Drug Abuse
Drug Addiction: A state of physical or psychological need of a drug which stems from its continual use.

Drug Abuse
Physical Dependence: Exhibited on withdrawal symtoms (vomiting and muscular tremors) when a person decides to stop using the drugs. Psychological Dependence: Phenomenon when a drug becomes necessary for the person·s well being. Person loses selfcontrol.

Drug Abuse
Most commonly abused drugs: 1. Sedatives 2. Stimulants 3. Hallucinogens 4. Narcotics

Drug Abuse
Most commonly abused drugs: 1. Sedatives Effect: Calming effects on the nervous system. Overdose ² death. Examples: Barbiturates, tranquilizers, alcohol. 2. Stimulants Effect: Increase alertness, hide fatigue. Overdose/excessive use ² insomnia, exhaustion, depression. Examples: Cocaine, Amphtemines.

Drug Abuse
Most commonly abused drugs: 3. Hallucinogens Effects: Affects sensation, thinking, selfawareness and emotion. Examples: Marijuana, LSd. 4. Narcotics: Effects: Relieve pain. Continuous use may lead to physiological an psychological dependence. Examples: Marijuana, Shabu, Ecstasy.

Crime

What is Crime?

What is Crime? How does the society reacts to it?

What is Crime? How does the society reacts to it? How to prevent crime?

Crime
It is a violation of a norm which is codified into a law and backed by the power and authority of the state. Crime injures:
A. Victim B. Society

Crime and its Realities
1. Crime tends to increase as a society becomes more urbanized and industrialized. 2. Familial, religious and social bonds become weaker.

How can the agents of socialization make a criminal?

Family, School, Peer Group, Community, Mass Media and Crime
1. Family
A dysfunctional family may result to indifference toward the child, slackness in parental care and control, excessive strictness may contribute traumatic experiences to the child. This may push the child into social deviance.

Family, School, Peer Group, Community, Mass Media and Crime
2. School Prepares a juvenile to become welladjusted, law-abiding, and a productive member of the society. If the school does not meet the people·s needs this may lead to unrest, disruptive activities, juvenile delinquency or drug abuse.

Family, School, Peer Group, Community, Mass Media and Crime
3. Peer Group Negative peer group may influence the child to vagrancy, truancy, and gang membership 4. Mass Media Can influence an individual into a deterioration of the character of individuals.

Crime: Philippine Context
Three Categories: A. Crimes against Property B. Crimes against Persons C. Rape

Crime: Philippine Context
Three Categories: A. Crimes against Property B. Crimes against Persons C. Rape

Crime: Philippine Context
Three Categories: A. Crimes against Property: Robbery, Theft, Car Theft B. Crimes against Persons: Murder, Homicide, Physical Injury

Crime: Philippine Context
Bright Side: Yearly, Philippine Crime Rates have been falling down. Gloomy side: Regions 4, and NCR still are the two regions of which crimes are rampant.

Crime: Philippine Context
Punishment includes: 1. Death 2. Reclusion Perpetua 3. Prision Correccional 4. Arresto Minor 5. Fines

Social Control Mechanisms
Two types: 1. Informal Control Observed in small groups, where everybody knows each other. Mechanisms: approval, praising, reprimand, expression of opinion, gossip. 2. Formal Control Involves organized systems of specialized agencies that sets up rules, codes and laws. Mechanisms: State and criminal laws; Boss and Employee relationship.

The End