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Collapse of the Tacoma Narrows suspension bridge in America in 1940 (p 415)

oscillation

SHM

Damped oscillation Forced oscillation

dynamics

kinematics

Dynamic equation

Kinematics equation

Circle of reference

Energy

Superposition of shm

**Chapter 13 periodic motion
**

Key Terms: periodic motion / oscillation restoring force Amplitude cycle Period Frequency angular frequency simple harmonic motion harmonic oscillator circle of reference Phasor phase angle simple pendulum

Key Terms: physical pendulum Damping Damped oscillation Critical damping overdamping underdamping driving force forced oscillation natural angular frequency resonance chaotic motion chaos

Dynamic equation 1) dynamic equation Ideal model: A. spring mass system T T T § F ! ma ! kx 2T T d x d2x k m 2 ! kx x!0 2 dt m dt d2x [ 2x ! 0 2 dt k [! m 2T T! [ x ! A cos( [t J ) .1.

The Simple Pendulum Ft ! ma t d 2s mg sinU ! m 2 dt s ! LU dU g sinU ! L 2 dt Small angle approximation sinU}U 2 d 2U g U !0 2 L dt g [ ! l 2 U ! U 0 cos([t J ) .B.

physical pendulum P409 § X ! IE d 2U mgd sinU ! I 2 dt d 2U mgd ! U 2 dt I mgd 2 [ ! I .C.

A) How does the natural walking pace depend on the length L of the leg. a two-legged dinosaur that lived about 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period.0 m. had a leg length L = 3. (page 410 EX13-10) Solution: . measured from hip to foot? B) Fossil evidence shows that Tyrannosaurus rex. Suppose this natural pace is equal to the period of the leg. Estimate the walking speed of Tyrannosaurus rex. a number of steps per minute that is more comfortable than a faster or slower pace.1 m and a stride length (the distance from one foot-print to the next print of the same foot ) S = 4. including humans. have a natural walking pace.Example: Tyrannosaurus rex and physical pendulum All walking animals. viewed as a uniform rod pivoted at the hip joint.

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9 s T ! 2T 2 3(9.9 s .8m / s ) 3g S 4.1m ) 2L ! 2T ! 2.Solution: 2( 3.4m / s T 2.0m v! ! ! 1.

Conclusion: Equation of SHM 2 d x [2 x ! 0 dt 2 Solution: x ! A cos( [t J ) .

through its center. Solution: F ! GmM g 2 ' r r e R. Prove that the motion is SHM and find the period. to the other side.Example: A particle dropped down a hole that extends from one side of the earth. r 4 3 Tr ! 3 M M ! 4 R TR 3 3 3 ' M 3 Fg O r R M GmM d r Fg ! r !m 2 3 R dt 2 [ 2 d r GM r !0 2 3 dt R 2 d2x [2 x ! 0 2 dt .

which also oscillate. show that M ! (k 4T )T 2 m 2 .Example: An astronaut on a body mass measuring device (BMMD). if M is mass of astronaut and m effective mass of the BMMD. its purpose is to allow astronauts to measure their mass in the µweight-less¶ condition in earth orbit. The BMMD is a spring mounted chair. designed for use on orbiting space vehicles.

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Example: the system is as follow. prove the block will oscillate in SHM Solution: mg T1 ! ma (T1 T2 ) R ! IE T2 ! kx a ! ER 2 (1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) o We have d y ky !0 2 dt m RI2 y .

Alternative solution 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 mgy ! k ( l y ) kl I[ mv 2 (1) 2 2 2 2 v ! [R (2) (3) mg ! kl o Take a derivative of y with respect to t d2y ky !0 2 I dt m R2 y .

2. kinematics equation 2.1 Equation d2x [2x ! 0 dt 2 Solution: x ! A cos([t J ) dx v! ! A[ sin([t J ) dt d2x a ! 2 ! A[ 2 cos([t J ) dt .

(+. (+.2 The basic quantity²²amplitude period. It depends on the system. They can describe SHM completely. Unite: rad/s) k ![2. phase A. [ ! m [ 1 k ! . . T! ! 2T m f m k Caution: [ is angular frequency rather than velocity.2. Basic quantity: A.[ and J are three constants. Unite: m) 2) Angular Frequency ([) . 1) Amplitude (A) : the maximum magnitude of displacement from equilibrium. f ! 2T 2T m k 1 .

Phase difference: x 2 ! A cos( [t J 2 ) "0 !0 0 !T x2 is front of x1 x2 and x1 are in phase x2 is behind of x1 x2 and x1 are inverse phase (U ! J 2 J 1 QUESTION: which one is ahead? T v ! A[ sin( [t J ) ! A[ cos( [t J ) 2 2 2 2 a ! [ A cos( [t J ) ! [ A cos( [t J T ) ! [ x x ! A cos( [t J ) .3) Phase angle ( U =[ t+J ): the status of the object. x ! A cos([t J ) Suppose there are two SHMs with same [: x1 ! A cos( [t J 1 ).

x ! A cos( [t J ) v ! A[ sin( [t J ) 2 2 a ! A[ cos([t J ) ! [ x .

x1 x2 x1 x2 (U ! U 2 U 1 ! 2 kT k ! 0 .s2.s1. Inverse phase . In phase (U ! U 2 U 1 ! ( 2k 1)T k ! 0.s1 .s2 .

Y <0 ² equilibrium ([ t+J ) the second quadrant. x= -A. x<0.Y=0 ²maximum positive ([ t+J ) the first quadrant.Y >0 ([ t+J )= 3T/2. Y >0 ² equilibrium ([ t+J ) the fourth quadrant. Y <0 ([ t+J )=T . x>0. The Motion of Harmonic Oscillator at Any Time Depends on Phase (U= [t+J ) x ! A cos( [t J ).Y =0 ²maximum positive . x>0. x=A. x<0. Y =0 ²maximum negative ([ t+J) the third quadrant. Y < 0 ([ t+J )=+T/2. x=0. Y >0 ([ t+J )=2T . x=0. v ! A[ sin( [t J ) ([ t+J )=0. x=A.

. v0 ! A[ sin J v0 2 A! x ( ) [ 2 0 v0 tg J ! [ x0 P 399 Caution: ³J´ is fixed by initial condition. x0 ! A cos J .B. [. v=v0 then . d2x [2 x ! 0 dt 2 x ! A cos( [t J ) v ! A[ sin( [t J ) 2) A and J are determined by initial condition: if t=0. The formula to solve: A. x=x0. J 1) [ is predetermined by the system.

m-1. 4 m v0 3 tgJ ! !1 [x0 and v0 T 0 @J ! 4 T @ x ! 1. The object is given an initial velocity of v0=-5m.0m. @ A ! 4 2 v0 2 x0 2 [ ! 1. Find the kinematics equation Solution: x ! A cos([t J0 ) 3[! k m 100 ! ! 5.s-1 and an initial displacement of x0=1.4 cos(5t ) 4 .Example: An object of mass 4kg is attached to a spring of k=100N.

Phasor Method equilibrium(+T/2) x ! A cos([t J ) [ Q Maximum negative(T) O A Maximum ([ t+J) positive (0) x P x equilibrium(-T/2) .C.

Circle of reference method v ! A[ sin( [t J ) x ! A cos( [t J ) a ! A[ 2 cos( [t J ) .

a(+) x(+). v(+). a(+) . Compare SHM with UCM SHM Amplitude Angular Frequency Displacement Phase in the first quadrant in the third quadrant in the fourth quadrant UCM Radius Angular Speed Projection on x-axis Angle that OQ makes with +x x(+). a(-) A [ x U in the second quadrant x(-). v(+). v(-). SHM is the projection of uniform circular motion (UCM) onto a diameter. v(-).From above. a(-) x(-).

Example: Find the initial phase of the two oscillation x(m) 0.8 o 1 x(cm) 6 3 t(s) o 1 t(s) o x -6 o 3 6 x T J0 ! 2 T J0 ! 3 .

Example:SHM: x-t graph. A ! 2 m x (m) 2 2 t ! 0 . Solution: From x-t graph. and equation for the displacement. Ub . 2 4 3T T @ x ! 2 cos( t ) 4 4 3T @[ ! 4 . v " 0 draw rotating vector. U b ! or ( ) 4 2 2 2 t !t a 2 2 a 1 b t (s) 0 -2 for (U ! [(t [ T T t ! 0 . x ! 2 m . try to find U0 . U ! . 4 2 t !t b t !0 T T @ [( 1 0 ) ! ( ). T T T 3T @ U0 ! . and t ! 1 . Ua . U ! . U a ! .

a) Find the period. amplitude.015 J P 0. We give the body an initial displacement of +0.025 Q 2T @T ! ! 0.50kg.50 m 0.40m/s. [ Solution: 3 [! 200 k ! ! 20 . and acceleration as functions of time.025 O x 0. b) Write equation for the displacement.31 s [ . and the spring is attached to a body with mass m=0. The force constant is k=200N/m. and phase angle of the motion.015m and initial velocity of +0. velocity.Example: A horizontal spring-mass system moves in SHM. 0.

93)m / s 2 0.025 Q @ v ! 0.015 J ! cos ( ) ! 53 0 ! 0.93 )m [ x 0.93 rad 0.025 cos( 20 t 0.025 m 0.93)m / s @ a ! 10 cos(20t 0.015 J P 0.025 1 @ x ! 0.025 O .5 sin( 20t 0.2 v0 @A! x 2 [ 2 0 ! 0.

3.Energy in SHM Kinetic energy: 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 K ! mv ! m [ A sin ([t J ) ! kA sin ([t J ) 2 2 2 Potential energy: 1 2 1 U ! kx ! kA2 cos 2 ([t J ) 2 2 Total energy of the system: 1 2 1 2 2 2 K U ! kA sin ([t J ) cos ([t J ) ! kA 2 2 ? A .

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e) at what point U=K. b) Compute the amax. potential energy.02m.50kg. b) a max ! A[ 2 ! 8. Solution: k [! ! 20 . a) Find the vmax and vmin attained by the oscillator. m=0. .40 m / s . m A ! 0. c) Determine the v and a when the body has moved halfway to the center from its original position. and kinetic energy at this position.Example: Horizontal SHM: k=200N/m. d) Find the total energy. ( J ! 0 ) v min ! A[ ! 0.0 m / s 2 . and the oscillator is released from rest at x=0.40 m / s a) v max ! A[ ! 0.02 m .

014 m .c) v hal ! A[ sin( [t J )! A[ sin T ! 0.35 m / s a hal T ! A[ cos ! 4.03 J 2 1 2 e) 3 K ! U ! kA ! 0.02 J 4 @ x ! s0.01J 2 1 2 K hal ! kA sin 2 ( [t J ) ! 0.04 J max 2 2 U hal 1 2 ! kA cos 2 ( [t J ) ! 0.0 m / s 2 3 2 3 d) E ! 1 kA 2 ! 1 mv 2 ! 0.

Find the kinetic equation suppose t=0 when putty dropped on to the block. A2 ! A1 M M m k [! mM T J0 ! 2 k M O X x ! A2 cos([t J0 ) v1 .Example: Spring mass system. particle move from left to right. 2 2 Mv 1 ! ( M m )v 2 . amplitude A1. 2 2 1 1 2 2 ( M m )v 2 ! kA2 . Solution: 1 1 2 2 Mv 1 ! kA1 . a lump of putty dropped vertically on to the block and stick to it. When the block passes through its equilibrium position.

Example: A wheel is free to rotate about its fixed axle.assuming that the wheel is a hoop of mass m and radius R.a spring is attached to one of its spokes a distance r from axle. spring constant k. a) obtain the angular frequency of small oscillations of this system b) find angular frequency and how about r=R and r=0 .

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4.1 mathematics method x1 ! A1 cos([t J1 ) x 2 ! A2 cos([t J 2 ) x ! x1 x 2 ! A cos([t J ) A! A1 sin J1 A2 sin J 2 A1 A2 2 A1 A2 cos(J 2 J1 ) J ! arctg A1 cos J1 A2 cos J 2 2 2 (J ! J 2 J1 ! 2kT (J ! J 2 J1 ! ( 2k 1)T A ! A1 A2 2 A1 A2 ! A1 A2 ! Amax 2 2 A ! A1 A2 2 A1 A2 ! A1 A2 ! Amin 2 2 . Superposition of SHM 4.

4.2 circle of reference x1 =A1cos([ t+N1 ) x2 =A2cos([ t+N2 ) M M2 x= x1+x2= Acos([ t+N ) A ! A1 A2 2 A1 A2 cos(N 2 N 1 ) A 2 N2 N N1 x1 x2 x 2 2 A A1 M1 A2 (N2-N1) A1 sin N 1 A2 sin N 2 tg N ! A1 cos N 1 A2 cos N 2 o x .

Find x=x1+x2 x(m) 3 3 x(m) x2 3 O 2 a t(s) 4 3 O x1 x(m) T T x ! 7 cos( t ) 2 2 t(s) x1 2 x2 T T x ! cos( t ) 2 2 x1 t(s) 2 x2 O X A2 X A1 4 3 O X A1 T T x ! 6 cos( t ) 2 6 .

X A X A1 3 X A2 x O 3 x ! x1 x 2 ! A cos( [t U ) 3T ! 3 2 cos( 2Tt )cm 4 .Example: x1=3cos(2Tt+T)cm. find the superposition displacement of x1 and x2. x2=3cos(2Tt+T/2)cm. Solution: Draw a circle of reference.

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1 Phenomena: p411 5.Damped Oscillations 5.2 Equation § F ! ma ! kx bv d2x dx m 2 ! kx b dt dt If damping force is relative small x ( t ) ! Ae k b m 4m 2 2 bt 2m cos([ d J ) t underdampi ng critical damping overdampin g ( x ! c1e a1t c2e a2 t ) [d ! k b m 4m 2 2 "0 !0 0 .5*.

6 0.2 -0.0 1.8 0.0 .4 0.0 x ( t ) ! Ae bt 2m cos([ d J ) t overdamping No oscillation [d 0 ! Critical damping underdamping Amplitude decrease 0.5 2.5 1.4 -0.1.2 0.0 0.0 -0.6 -0.8 0.

6*. . The amplitude has a large increase near [0----.Forced Oscillations drive an oscillator with a sinusoidally varying force: d 2x dx m 2 ! kx b F0 sin [t dt dt The steady-state solution is x ( t ) ! A cos([t J ) F0 A! [ [ 2 m ¨ b[ ¸ © ¹ ª m º 2 2 2 0 where [0=(k/m)½ is the natural frequency of the system.resonance.

Point in E-Geometry , which is nothing and Dimensionless , is Zero can be derived from the addition of a Positive (+) and a Negative (-) number while Material point has Dimension the Segment ds = [⊕⊝] , and originates in the same way . Adding it to numbers i.e. to Monads , creates the Primary Particles and all the Rest-Gravity constituent and all Atoms of Periodic System in Planck`s Space -Level . Monads are Spinning because of the inner Electromagnetic Waves E,P which create the External Spin and again Spin creates the Inner Electromagnetic Waves E,P in monads continuing this eternal cycle . It is shown Why , How , and where this Rotational momentum , the Spinning , is conserved .

by Anonymous KUEs64y

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