• It is organized process of giving information and/or instructions to improve the recipient’s performance or to help him/her attain a required level of knowledge or skill. • the planned and systematic modification of behavior through learning events, programmes and instruction, which enable individuals to achieve the levels of knowledge, skill and competence needed to carry out their work effectively.

human capital theory indicates that: ‘The knowledge and skills a worker has – which comes from education and training.• As stated by Ehrenberg and Smith (1994). including the training that experience brings – generate productive capital’. .

Components Of Human Resource Development .

• It can avoid costly mistakes by recruits not knowing the procedures or techniques of their new jobs. .Advantages of Training • new recruit to become productive as quickly as possible.

What is expected from Training The following areas may be included in induction training: • Learning about the duties of the job • Meeting new colleagues • Seeing the layout of the premises • Learning the values and aims of the business • Learning about the internal workings and policies of the business .

Training Vs Development • Both are interrelated terms which increase the efficiency and productivity of the employees while helping company to fulfill their objects. • TRAINING • Training makes an employee more productive for the organization and is thus concerned with his immediate improvement. . • Training is imparted so that he understands his roles and responsibilities and learns to perform the tasks entrusted to him with ease and with efficiency.

. development looks after long term goals of the organization. • DEVELOPMENT • Development of an employee is an ongoing process which continues well beyond training.Training Vs Development cont. • This concerns with making the employee efficient enough to handle critical situations.

development is a process • Training focuses on short term goals of the company while development focuses on the employee as a person • While training results can be measured in terms of benefits to the organization.• While training is an event. the advantages of development are much more subtle .

Mainly training can be divided into two Parts • Behavioral method (On the job training) • Cognitive method (Off the job training) .

• Coaching • Job rotation • Role Playing/Business Games • Equipment Simulation . These methods are best used for skill development.Behavioral method (On-job training) • On the job training is more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion.

.On the job Training Coaching It is a more intensive method of training that involves a close working relationship between an experienced employee and the trainee. coaching is more likely done by the supervisor. e-mails & etc. meetings. • It is one to one interaction • It can be done through phone. • It provides an opportunity to receive feedback from an expert • It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that needs improvement • For the people at middle level management.

On the job Training Coaching • Procedure of the Coaching .

and resources which required to meet the desired expectation. . attitudes. Executing • At the job. knowledge. show the participant how to achieve the objectives. Planning • Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule.Understand • Understand the participant’s job. skills. Deciding • Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has to be achieved. observe the performance and then provide feedback.

. job rotation might be to the supplier to see how the business operates from the supplier point of view. where the supplier is actually part of same organization or subsidiary.Job Rotation • For the executive. as a way to achieve many different human resources objectives. • Job rotation is the systematic movement of employees from job to job/ project to project within an organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to provide a global perspective. job rotation takes on different perspectives. In some vertically integrated organizations. Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside broadens the executive’s outlook on the process of the organization. The executive is usually not simply going to another department. for example.

where the trainee is given several jobs in succession. to gain experience of a wide range of activities (e.• Job rotation .g. a graduate management trainee might spend periods in several different departments) .

. and the problem they each face. a description of their roles.Role Playing • The purpose of this method is to give participants a chance to experience such situation in a controlled setting. a general description of a situation. • Trainees are provided with a description of the context usually a topic area.

concerns. emotions. etc. For instance. managing conflict. Then. etc. Once the participants read their role descriptions. objectives. a general description of the situation. scheduling vacation days. Trainees are given with some information related to description of the role. responsibilities. situation could be strike in factory. is given.• Role play is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play. Role Plays helps in Developing interpersonal skills and communication skills Conflict resolution Group decision making Developing insight into one’s own behavior and its impact on others . they act out their roles by interacting with one another. and the problem that each one of them faces. two parties in conflict.

etc must also be closely matched to what the trainees experience on the work place. It is imperative that the simulators be designed to repeat.Equipment Simulation • Equipment simulators are the mechanical devices that necessitate trainees to use some actions. Besides that. trials. movements. or decision processes they would use with equipment back on the their respective work place. as closely as possible. This is also called as physical fidelity of the simulation. plans. The literature on socio-technical approaches to organizational development provides guidelines for the design or redesign of tools. the physical aspects of equipment and operational surroundings trainees will find at their work place. it also increases the degree of reliability between the simulation and the work setting. measures. Human Resource professionals involved in propose of simulators and their pre-testing should engage those who will be using the equipment and their supervisors. the mental conditions under which the equipment is operated such as. Equipment simulators can be used in giving training to: Air Traffic Controllers • Taxi Drivers • Telephone Operators • Ship Navigators • Maintenance Workers • Product Development Engineers • Airline Pilots • Military Officers . and relationship with colleagues. pressure of time. increasing demands. Their input can help in reducing the potential resistance. subordinates. errors in the equipment and more importantly.

employees join a project team .On the Job Training • With on the job training.showing the trainee how to do the job • Projects . Most successful project teams are "multi-disciplinary" • The advantages and disadvantages of this form of training can be summarized as follows . employees receive training whilst remaining in the workplace.which gives them exposure to other parts of the business and allow them to take part in new activities. The main methods of one-the-job training include: • Demonstration / instruction .

Advantages Generally most cost-effective Employees are actually productive Opportunity to learn whilst doing Training alongside real colleagues Disadvantages .

The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something. demonstrate relationships among concepts. • Lectures • Demonstration • Discussion • Computer Based Training . written or verbal information. etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning.Cognitive method (Off the job training) • Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees.

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