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IBRO News 2012

IBRO News 2012

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Latest news from the International Brain Research Organization - the world federation of neuroscientists.
Latest news from the International Brain Research Organization - the world federation of neuroscientists.

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Published by: International Brain Research Organization on Dec 07, 2012
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06/21/2013

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AO_DEH\[
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|||%aod%aeid
¡
AO_D
Aephefpadefc Ofae _h{hfkn Dlfeazfpade
|||%aod%aeid
deh
Hc{hyahr# Pnh Odxchyfr`# Cfelidr` Cfeh#Ga`caelpde# D~idr` D^8 6LO# XG
 F lf{{ddp{ dlfeazfpade# AO_D kfah{ dxp ap{ fkpayapah{pndxln ap{ hladefc kdmmapphh{ fe` nxe`h`{ di ydcxephh{kdyhael pnh lcdoh7 ed| pnhh a{ f eh|# diiakafc [xo-_hladeidkx{h` de pnh {rhkaiak ehh`{ di pnh MHEF .Ma``ch Hf{p $ Edpnhe Fiakfe! hlade pnfp |acc {hyh pd ixpnh henfekh pnhaeif{pxkpxh id ehxd{kahekh h{hfkn pnhh% F{ |apn pnhdpnh AO_D hlade{# pnh MHEF [xo-_hlade |acc nfyh f `ahkpydakh ae `hiaeael ap{ d|e ehh`{ fe` radapah{ ae ehxd{kahekhh{hfkn fe` h`xkfpade%
–F{ pnh AO_D F{af-Rfkaiak hlade a{ h~khrpadefccq cflh# {rfeeael idm Eh|Zhfcfe` pd Jd`fe# fe` ohkfx{h ap a{ nhphdlhehdx{ ae mfeq |fq{# pnh a`hf |f{dalaefccq rxp idpn pd kde{a`h khfpael f hlade d lhd-rdcapakfc hepapq pd henfekhdrrdpxeapah{ rfpakxcf pd pna{ {xo-hlade#” {fa` AO_D [hkhpfq-Lhehfc RahhMfla{phppa% Pnh eh| AO_D-MHEF [xo-_hlade |f{ diiakafccq cfxeknh` fp pnh AO_D-MHEF [xo-_hlade Aefxlxfc Mhhpael# nhc` ae Pxea{# _hrxocak di Pxea{af# deDkpdoh 0# ?26?% Fe diiakafc khhmdeq de Dkpdoh 60 mfgh` pnh hyhep# nhc``xael pnh [dkahpq di Ffo Ehxd{kahepa{p{ [dkafc fp pnh [dkahpq id Ehxd{kahekhmhhpael ae Eh| Dchfe{# X[F%
Kdepaexh` de rflh >
 F{ f lcdofc ehxd{kahekh ih`hfpade `h`akfph` pd pnh rdmdpade diehxd{kahekh fdxe` pnh |dc`# pnh Aephefpadefc Ofae _h{hfkn Dlfeazfpade.AO_D! |f{ knd{he oq {hyhfc chf`ael ehxd{kahekh {dkahpah{ pd chf` fkdccfodfpayh hiidp ae {xrrdp di f`ydkfkq rdlfm{ fkd{{ fcc pnh |dc`‑{hlade{% Pnh AO_D Lcdofc F`ydkfkq Aeapafpayh |f{ cfxeknh` ae ?26? pd ifkacapfphpnh `hyhcdrmhep di kxcpxfccq hchyfep h`xkfpadefc fe` mdpayfpadefc rdlfm{pnfp |acc lfeh |a`h {xrrdp id ehxd{kahekh h{hfkn fkd{{ pnh |dc`%
 AO_D diiakh{ fe` {pfii |hckdmh` mhmoh{ di pnh eh| AO_D MHEF .Ma``ch Hf{p $ Edpnhe Fiakf! [xo-_hlade `xael pnh [dkahpq id Ffo Ehxd{kahepa{p{ [dkafc ae Eh| Dchfe{ de Dkpdoh 60# ?26?%
Pnh cfxekn di pna{ eh| [xo-_hlade a{ pnh kxcmaefpade di hiidp{ oq f ldxr diMHEF hlade-of{h` ehxd{kahepa{p{ di Ffo `h{khep ‛ |dgael odpn cdkfccq fe`fodf` ‛ fe` pnh chf`h{nar di AO_D pd a`hepaiq fkpade{ pnfp kdxc` oh pfghe pdrdya`h henfekh` drrdpxeapah{ |apnae pnh Ffo-{rhfgael |dc` id qdxelaeyh{palfpd{ rx{xael f kfhh ae ehxd{kahekh h{hfkn% Nd|hyh# ehxd{kahepa{p{ae pna{ eh| [xo-_hlade |acc kdepaexh pd kdccfodfph |apn pnh AO_D F{af-Rfkaiak fe` Fiakf hlade{# pd |nakn pnhq {pacc ohcdel%–Id pnh rf{p {hyhfc qhf{# Rdih{{d Mfla{phppa fe` A nfyh ohhe kdeyaekh` pnfpfe dlfeazfpade {xkn f{ AO_D kdxc` oh ae{pxmhepfc ae nhcrael pd {nfrh {pfphlah{oq chyhflael ap{ aephefpadefc ehp|dg di kdepfkp{# rdya`ael {hh` ixe`ael fe`pddc{# fe` kdmmxeakfpael |apn pnh alnp ae`aya`xfc{ ae d`h pd {pfp f cdel-phmrdlfm pnfp hrh{hep{ fe` {hyh{ fcc pnh kdxepah{ pndxlndxp pnh Ffo-{rhfgael|dc`#/ {fa` AO_D Rh{a`hep Kfcd{ Ohcmdeph%Pnh idxe`ael AO_D-MHEF Kdmmapphh |acc oh knfah` oq Dmf Hc-Flefi .Xeaph` Ffo Hmafph{! fe` kde{a{p{ di Fo`x F`hm .Xeaph` Ffo Hmafph{!# Ifqìfc Nhepfpa._hrxocak di Pxea{af!# Efqhi [ff`á .Chofede!# fe` Fo`xcmdehm Fc-Nfqfea.Gael`dm di [fx`a Ffoaf!# |nd nfyh rcfqh` f kapakfc dch ae h{pfoca{nael pnh [xo-_hlade% Pnha mfe`fph |acc oh di pnh {fmh `xfpade f{ dpnh AO_D hladefckdmmapphh{%\nach mh`akfc rdlh{{ fe` amrdyh` cayael kde`apade{ nfyh lhehfccqaekhf{h` caih {rfe{ fkd{{ pnh lcdoh# fe flael rdrxcfpade oael{xerhkh`heph` knfcchelh{ pd dx mh`akfc {q{phm{ fe` {dkahpq fp cflh# |apnehxdcdlakfc a{{xh{ {xkn f{ Fcznhamh‑{ pnhfpheael pd fpknhp xr nhfcpnkfhkd{p{ ohqde` ae`aya`xfc kdxepah{‑ foacapq pd fiid` pnhm% \nfp‑{ mdh# ae mfeqrfp{ di pnh |dc` ehxdcdlakfc `a{hf{h{ {xkn f{ hrachr{q fh edp |hccxe`h{pdd` d hyhe fkkhrph` f{ xe`hcqael kfx{h{ di `a{foacapq% Ap a{ ohkfx{hdi pnh{h a{{xh{ pnfp rhdrch ‛ idm rdcapakafe{ fe` rdcakq-mfgh{ pd rfhep{ fe`knac`he ‛ mx{p xe`h{pfe` pnh amrdpfekh di ofae h{hfkn fe` nd| ap kfeohehiap nxmfe caih% Nd|hyh# hyhe ae pnh md{p `hyhcdrh` kdxepah{# rdcakq-mfgh{ diphe {hh ehxd{kahekh h{hfkn f{ f ayfc pnfp kdxc` `f| ixe`aelf|fq idm dpnh oal a{{xh{ {xkn f{ kcamfph knfelh fe` hkdedmak ka{h{#`h{raph pnh hfcapq pnfp edeh di pnh{h a{{xh{ kfe pxcq oh f``h{{h` |apndxpnxmfe ofae rd|h%Pnh ma{{ade di pnh AO_D Lcdofc F`ydkfkq Aeapafpayh a{ pd oxac` {xrrdp fmdelghq rdcakqmfgh{ fe` dpnh draeade chf`h{ id aekhf{h` h{dxkh{ idh{hfkn fe` rxocak h`xkfpade kdekheael pnh ofae fe` pnh ehydx{ {q{phm#ae odpn nhfcpn fe` `a{hf{h fe` idm hfcq `hyhcdrmhep pd flael%
 Chf`ael pnh AO_D Lcdofc F`ydkfkq Aeapafpayh a{ AO_D [hkhpfq-Lhehfc Rahh
 Mfla{phppa .de pnh chip!# |apn AO_D [hkhpfq-Lhehfc Hchkp [phe Lacceh .de pnh alnp!%
AO_D cfxeknh{ Lcdofc F`ydkfkq Aeapafpayh ae rfpeh{nar|apn dpnh ehxd{kahekh dlfeazfpade{
Kdepaexh` de rflh >
AO_D rfq{paoxph pd@flxp Ghmfcafe` rch`lh{
pd kdepaexh na{Idxe`fpade‑{
|dg
\apn pnh rf{{ael di @flxp Ghmfca ae@hkhmoh ?266# AO_D nf{ fo{doh`pnh @flxp fe` Machef GhmfcaIdxe`fpade id _h{hfkn ae pnhEhxd{kahekh{% Fkkd`ael pd Rdi%Ghmfca‑{ |a{nh{# AO_D Rh{a`hepKfcd{ Ohcmdeph nf{ f{{xmh` pnh dchdi Knfa di pna{ idxe`fpade# hefmh` pnhGhmfca-AO_D Idxe`fpade# |nakn a{`h`akfph` pd h~phe`ael kxcpxfcoa`lh{ pndxln {kahekh ohp|hhekdepaehepfc Hxdrh fe` ede-HxdrhfeMh`aphfehfe kdxepah{% Rdi%Ohcmdeph nf{ kdeiamh` pnfp pnhGhmfca Razh Chkpxh .nhc` aehyhe-exmohh` qhf{! fe` pnh Ghmfca-AO_D Ehxd{kahekh [knddc .nhc` aed``-exmohh` qhf{! |acc kdepaexhf{ ohidh%
Kdepaexh` de rflh >
 Mfaef Ohepaydlcad .chip! fe` Kfcd{ Ohcmdeph .alnp! |apn @flxp Ghmfca#|nd lhehdx{cq ohvxhfpnh` na{ h{pfph pd AO_D pd kdepaexh pd oxac` ehp|dg{ di kdccfodfpade fe` iahe`{nar ohp|hhe qdxel# rdma{ael ehxd{kahepa{p{ kdmaelidm `aiihhep hlade{%
–\apn hiihkpayh f`ydkfkq# lhfph rdcapakfc |acc fe` henfekh` lcdofc kddrhfpade# ehxd{kahekh |acc mfghif{ph rdlh{{ id pnh ohehiap di fcc nxmfe{%”  ‐ Rahh Mfla{phppa 
AO_D K_HFPH[ MHEF [XO-_HLADE# ID_MFCAZAEL AP[ [XRRD_PDI MA@@CH HF[P FE@ ED_PNH_E FI_AKF EHX_D[KAHEKH
Ae pna{ a{{xh:
Ixe`ael?AO_D Fcxmea;Dxphfkn Fkpayapah{0-8Eh|{ idm pnh _hlade{9-<Ldxe`ohfgael \dg>
EH\ AO_D ?26?TCfqdxp 6 2;$6?$?26? 69:;0 Rflh 6
 
AO_DIXE@AEL?26? - ?26;
p|d
AO_D QdxelAeyh{palfpd{ohehiap idmya{ap{ pd[rfea{n cfo{
Pnh ?26? Qdxel Aeyh{palfpd{ Rdlfmmh.QAR! idccd|h` pnh yhq {xkkh{{ixc aeapafpayhohlxe fp pnh >pn AO_D \dc` Kdelh{{ ae?266% Pna{ qhf# pnh AO_D \h{phe Hxdrh_hladefc Kdmmapphh .\H_K! {xrrdph`0; {ndp {pfq{ ae [rfae id qdxelaeyh{palfpd{# idm kdxepah{ |apn camaph`h{dxkh{# fp pnh pamh di pnh IHE[ Idxmae Ofkhcdef# [rfae%Pnh{h {ndp-{pfq{ ae [rfea{n cfodfpdah{‛ cf{pael xr pd deh mdepn ‛ fccd|h` lxh{pqdxel aeyh{palfpd{ pd mhhp {head fe` jxead {kahepa{p{ fe` pd lhp ifmacaf |apnpnh cfodfpdq‑{ heyademhep# ifkacapah{ fe`phkneavxh{ ae `aiihhep iahc`{ di ofaeh{hfkn ae d`h pd ifyd ixpxhh~knfelh{ fe` ehp|dgael% Pnh ?26?Qdxel Aeyh{palfpd Ya{apael Rdlfm |f{kdd`aefph` oq Mfahccf Knhpdii di pnhAe{papxp `h Ehxdkaîekah{ XFO.Ofkhcdef!%
–Pnfeg{ pd pnh QAR# A |f{ foch pd rfpakarfph id deh mdepn ae cfodfpdq |dg kfah` dxp oq pnh Mdchkxcf Ehxdr{qkndrnfmfkdcdlq di [ph{{_hcfph` @a{hf{h{ _h{hfkn Ldxr fp Kdmrcxphe{h Xeayh{apq# Mf`a`# |nhh A|f{ foch pd do{hyh yfadx{ deldael rdjhkp{ fe` lfae ged|ch`lh di  oadknhmakfc phkneavxh{pnfp |hh edyhc id mh# cagh |h{phe ocdppael
 fe` f`adammxedf{{fq%” 
‛ Gcfx`af [zgcfkzqgIa{p-qhf Rn@{px`hep fp pnh Rdca{n Fkf`hmq di [kahekh
AO_Dfeedxekh{ap{ ?26;_h{hfknIhccd|{
AO_D nf{ f|f`h` pnhhrdma{ael qdxel ehxd{kahepa{p{|apn deh-qhf h{hfknihccd|{nar{ ae d`h pd odf`hepnh {kdrh di pnha pfaeael oq|dgael fodf` ae naln-vxfcapqcfodfpdah{:
Jdmfe Efp{nhn#
M@# pnh ?26;AO_D @flxp Ghmfca Ihccd|# a{idm Fc-Vx`{ Xeayh{apq.Rfch{paeafe Phapdah{!# |nhh{nh {px`ah{ pnh kdleapayhkdhcfph{ di `hrh{{ayh{qmrpdm{ fkd{{ ehxdcdlakfcfe` r{qknafpak `a{d`h{% \apnpnh AO_D _h{hfkn Ihccd|{nar#{nh |acc |dg id pnh _xplh{Mhmdq @a{d`h{ Rdjhkp fp_xplh{-Eh|fg Xeayh{apq.X[F!# xe`h pnh{xrhya{ade diRdi% Mfg Lcxkg#idkx{ael de nd|efpxfc fcchcakyfafpade ae khpfaelheh{ fiihkpchfeael fe` mhmdq foacapah{%
Pdxeh{ [fa`a#
Rn@# pnh ?26;AO_D _apf Chya-Mdepfckaea Ihccd|#{px`ah{ `afohpak hpaedrfpnq fppnh Nalnh Ae{papxph diOadphknedcdlq di [a`a Pnfohp#Pxea{af% \apn pnh AO_D _h{hfknIhccd|{nar# {nh |acc |dg fp pnhAe{papxph di Ehxdoadcdlq di_nqpnm{ fpAE[H_M .Ifekh!#xe`h pnh{xrhya{ade diRdi% @fya` Nakg{#de khccxcf fe`mdchkxcfmhknfea{m{ xe`hcqael hpaefcixekpade fe` rfpndcdlq%
Rfocd Ofadexhyd#
Rn@# pnh?26; AO_D Jdne L% Eakndcc{_h{hfkn Ihccd|# a{ fehchkpdeak{ helaehh |nd {px`ah{pnh kdmrxpfpadefc md`hc dioalnpeh{{ di mh{drak {pamxcaxe`h lcfh kde`apade{ fp pnhXEP .Pxkxmfe EfpadefcXeayh{apq! - KDEAKHP .EfpadefcKdxekac di [kahepaiak fe`Phkneakfc _h{hfkn!# Flhepaef%\apn pnh AO_D _h{hfknIhccd|{nar# nh |acc |dg fp pnh Ya{xfc Rhkhrpade Cfodfpdq fppnh Xeayh{apq diAccaeda{ fp Knakfld.X[F!# xe`h pnh{xrhya{ade diRdi% @aelkfa Kfd#de pnh rdkh{{aeldi d`-kdehaephfkpade ae mh{drak ya{ade%
AO_D rdya`h{ _hpxe-Ndmh ixe`ael fiphrd{p-`dk pfaeael{ fodf`
Ae ?26;# idx mdh rdma{ael qdxel h{hfknh{ |nd nfyh kdmrchph` rd{p-`dkpdfc pfaeael fp naln-vxfcapq cfodfpdah{dyh{hf{ |acc hkhayh –{pfp-xr” ixe`ael idm AO_D pd h{pfoca{n cfodfpdah{ ofkg ae pnha ndmh kdxepah{% AO_D cfxeknh` pnh_hpxe Ndmh Rdlfm ae ?229 pd kdxephfkp –ofae `fae” fe` pd rdmdph pnh ld|pn di vxfcapq ehxd{kahekh h{hfkn ae`hyhcdrael hlade{ di pnh |dc`% Pnh idccd|ael qdxel {kahepa{p{ |acc hkhayh fe AO_D _hpxe Ndmh f|f` di ?2#222 HX_:
Jfmh{ Dcdrf`h
|acc hpxe pd pnh Xeayh{apq di Aof`fe .Ealhaf! fiph rd{p-`dkpdfc {px`ah{ fp odpn Rhee[pfph Kdcchlh di Mh`akaeh .pnh Xeaph` [pfph{! fe` pnh Xeayh{apq di \xhzoxl .Lhmfeq!% Pndxln na{h{hfkn rdjhkp{# nh idxe` pnfp Ealhafe kx`h dac a{ akn ae yfef`axm# |nakn kfe heph pnh ofae yafaenfcfpade fe` fc{d pndxln ohf{p macg% Yfef`axm chf`{ pd cd| od`q |halnp lfae# h`xkh` ofae |halnp#aekhf{h` ofae yfef`axm kdephep# khcc mhmofeh `fmflh# fe` kde{hvxhep ofae `hmqhcaefpade .pnfpa{# pnh cd{{ di pnh mqhcae {nhfpn ae{xcfpael pnh ehyh{# |nakn a{ pnh nfccmfg di {hyhfc ehxd`hlhehfpayhfxpdammxeh `a{hf{h{# aekcx`ael mxcparch {kchd{a{!% @% Dcdrf`h {fa` pnfp dekh ofkg fp pnh Xeayh{apq diAof`fe# /mq h{hfkn rcfe a{ pd kdepaexh |dg ae pnh cfodfpdq de pnh mhknfea{m{ di yfef`axm ae`xkh`ehxdpd~akapq ae pnh ofae fe` fc{d pd {khhe fe` `hyhcdr rxaiah` h~pfkp{ idm cdkfc rcfep{ pnfp |acc nfyhknhcfpayh fe` fepad~a`fpayh rdrhpah{ de yfef`axm%/
Zhcjgf G{eag
|acc hpxe pd nh efpayh kdxepq di Kdfpaf fiph |dgael ae pnh Xeaph` [pfph{# {px`qael pnh`hyhcdrmhep fe` hdlfeazfpade di pnh nxmfe khhofc kdph~: –Fiph {a~ qhf{ di rd{p`dkpdfc pfaeael fppnh @hrfpmhep di Ehxdoadcdlq# [knddc di Mh`akaeh fp Qfch Xeayh{apq# A `hka`h` pd hpxe pd Kdfpaf fe`kdepaexh mq h{hfkn fp pnh Kdfpafe Ae{papxph id Ofae _h{hfkn .KAO_! ae Zflho# |nhh A {pfph` mqkfhh xe`h pnh {xrhya{ade di Rdih{{d Ayakf Gd{pdyak#” {fa` @% G{eag% –A pxcq ndrh pnfp |apn pnhaeyfcxfoch nhcr di pnh AO_D _hpxe Ndmh Ihccd|{nar fe` kdccfodfpael |apn dpnh ldxr{ fp KAO_# A kfemfgh f kdepaoxpade pd f knfcchelael vxh{pade di pnh rhaefpfc hdlfeazfpade di pnh nxmfe ofae pnfp |acc ae`xh kdx{h nfyh kcaeakfc {aleaiakfekh ae amrdyael phfpmhep di knac`he ode |apn rhaefpfc ofae `fmflh%
Rh`d Ohgae{knphae
|acc hpxe pd pnh Xeayh{apq di Oxhed{ Fah{ .Flhepaef! fiph pnhh qhf{ di rd{p-`dkpdfc |dg fp pnh Xeayh{apq di Kfmoa`lh .XG!# idkx{h` de ehxdoadcdlakfc mhknfea{m{ aeydcyh` aemhmdq fe` rfpphe {hrffpade ae pnh mh`afc phmrdfc cdoh% –Kfmoa`lh a{ fe fmfzael rcfkh pd `d{kahekh& A idxe` pnh @hrfpmhep di H~rhamhepfc R{qkndcdlq pd oh f yhq {pamxcfpael heyademhep fe`A `hiaeaphcq aekhf{h` mq ged|ch`lh fodxp kdleapayh ehxd{kahekh fe` ohnfyad ae f odf`h {he{h#”{fa` @% Ohgae{knphae% –Oq aepd`xkael edyhc pddc{# feamfc md`hc{ fe` h~rhpa{h pd mq ndmh ae{papxpade#pnh Xeayh{apq di Oxhed{ Fah{# ap a{ mq ndrh pnfp odpn kdcchflxh{ fe` {px`hep{ |acc ihhc {pamxcfph` pdrx{xh edyhc fe` kxppael-h`lh h{hfkn fyhexh{ ae Flhepaef# f kdxepq |apn f lhfp {kahepaiak pf`apadeoxp kndeakfccq a``he oq {dkad-hkdedmak ka{a{ fe` cfkg di rdrh {kahepaiak ixe`ael%”
 ^afd-@del \fel
# |nd {px`ah{ pnh ehxdoadcdlakfc of{a{ di r{qknafpak `a{d`h{# |acc hpxe pd Knaef fe`h{pfoca{n f cfodfpdq fp Rhgael Xeayh{apq,{ Ae{papxph di Mhepfc Nhfcpn% Nh a{ rfpakxcfcq aephh{ph` ae nd|{ph{{ {nfrh{ pnh `hyhcdrmhep fe` rcf{pakapq di pnh ofae fe` ohnfyad% Id pnh rf{p pnhh qhf{ @%\fel nf{ |dgh` fp pnh Mf~ Rcfekg Ae{papxph di R{qknafpq .Lhmfeq!# |nhh na{ h{hfkn {xrhya{d#Rdi% Mfpnaf{ Y% [knma`p# nf` pna{ pd {fq fodxp nam: –^afd-@del a{ f `hydph` fe` khfpayh qdxel{kahepa{p# fe` na{ kdepaoxpade{ nfyh ohhe aeyfcxfoch pd dx rdjhkp{% Nf`-|dgael fe` rdcaiak# nh nf{idx ia{p-fxpndh` fe` halnp kd-fxpndh` rfrh{ rxoca{nh` ae aephefpadefccq hkdleazh` jdxefc{% Pnhha{ ed `dxop pnfp ^afd-@del‑{ aephcchkpxfc fe` fkf`hmak foacapah{ {xrf{{ pnd{h di md{p {px`hep{ pnfp Anfyh ged|e% A ohcahyh nh kfe hiiakahepcq aeapafph fe` mfeflh aeedyfpayh h{hfkn rdjhkp{# fe` nh nf{pnh rdphepafc pd ohkdmh fe h~khcchep {kahepa{p ae pna{ iahc`%”
Rh{a`hep
Kfcd{ Ohcmdeph .[rfae!
[hkhpfq-Lhehfc
Rahh Mfla{phppa .[|apzhcfe`!
[hkhpfq-Lhehfc Hchkp
[phe Lacceh .[|h`he!
Phf{xh
Vxhepae Rappmfe .Kfef`f!
_hladefc Kdmmapphh Knfa{
 Fo`xc Mdnfmmh` .Fiakf!Pf`fnfx P{xmdpd .F{af$Rfkaiak!_q{zf` Rzh|cdkga .Khepfc ) Hf{phe Hxdrh!D{yfc`d Xknaphc .Cfpae Fmhakf!Lhldq Vxag .X%[%$Kfef`f!Jxfe Chmf .\h{phe Hxdrh!
Knfa di pnh Ihccd|{nar{# PfyhcLfep{ ) _hpxe Ndmh Ixe`aelRdlfmmh
Mfpf Nfccfg .Flhepaef!
Knfa di pnh Aeph-_hladefcAeapafpayh{ Kdmmapphh
Mdeakf @a Cxkf .Apfcq!
AO_D [hkhpfafp
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H~hkxpayh @ahkpd
[phrnfeah `h Cf _dknhidxkfxc`{phrnfeahBaod%aeid
@ahkpd di Rdlfmmh{) Kdmmxeakfpade{
_doqee _dkg{pf`-_h~doqeeBaod%aeid
AO_D \homf{ph ) Nhf` di AP
 Feph Rf`jhefeph%rf`jheBmklacc%kf
 AO_D Eh|{
H`apd ae Knahi
_doqee _dkg{pf`-_h~doqeeBaod%aeid
AO_D \ho {aph:
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Aephefpadefc Ofae_h{hfkn Dlfeazfpade
\nd a{ ohnae` pnh ixe`ael`hka{ade{ fp AO_D4
Pnh AO_D Ihccd|{nar{# Pfyhc Lfep{ ) _hpxe Ndmh Rdlfm Kdmmapphh ‛ knfah` oqMfpf Nfccfg ‛ oael{ f cdkfc rh{rhkpayh pd `hka{ade{ mf`h ae fcc di AO_D‑{ khepfcazh`ixe`ael rdlfm{% Ohkfx{h pnh Kdmmapphh kdmra{h{ AO_D _hladefc KdmmapphhKnfa{# pnhq kfe pfr aepd pnh ged|ch`lh di cdkfc ehxd{kahekh rdlfm{ fe` pfaeaelehh`{ pd he{xh pnfp pnh md{p rdma{ael fe` md{p `h{hyael kfe`a`fph{ fh {hchkph`pd hkhayh AO_D ixe`ael f|f`{% Fp pnh {fmh pamh# Rdi% Nfccfg |dg{ nf` pd rdya`hf ofcfekh` lhdlfrnakfc hrh{hepfpade fe` f ifa `a{paoxpade di ixe`{ pd khfph kfhh-henfekael drrdpxeapah{ id f{ mfeq qdxel ehxd{kahekh h{hfknh{ f{ rd{{aoch%\apnae pnh rf{p p|d qhf{# pnh Kdmmapphh nf{ .pdlhpnh |apn nhcr idm pnha _hladefcKdmmapphh mhmoh{! hyah|h` mdh pnfe 6922 frrcakfpade{ id ixe`ael pndxln AO_D‑{khepfcazh` ixe`ael rdlfm{%
Amrdpfep Ixe`ael @hf`caeh{
AO_D Aephefpadefc Pfyhc Lfep{ .Jxcq ‛ @hkhmoh ?26;!: Mf% 6# ?26;[iE-AO_D Pfyhc Lfep{# ?26;: Mf% 6# ?26;AO_D _h{hfkn Ihccd|{nar{# ?260: Mf% 6# ?26;AO_D Aephefpadefc Pfyhc Lfep{ .Jfexfq ‛ Jxeh ?260!: [hrphmoh 6# ?26;AO_D _hpxe Ndmh Rdlfm# ?260: [hrphmoh 6# ?26;Knhkg decaeh fp |||%aod%aeid id pnh `hf`caeh{ di AO_D‑{ _hladefcIxe`ael Rdlfm{:AO_D-F{afe$Rfkaiak H~knfelh Ihccd|{nar{Hxdrh: AeHxdrh [ndp [pfq Lfep{ fe` [qmrd{af$\dg{ndr{ ixe`aelCfpae Fmhakf _hlade: [ndp [pfq Ihccd|{nar{# Pfyhc Lfep{# [knddc{fe` [qmrd{af$\dg{ndr{ ixe`aelAephefpadefc Ihccd|{nar{ pd Mfaeh Oadcdlakfc$Kdc` [rael NfodCfodfpdah{# X[F 
EH\ AO_D ?26?TCfqdxp 6 2;$6?$?26? 69:;0 Rflh ?
 
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pnrhh
Jdae AO_D de
Id pnh cfph{p aeidmfpade de Ixe`ael# [knddc{# FcxmeaHyhep{ fe` dpnh xr-pd-pnh-maexph AO_D eh|{# idccd| x{de Ifkhoddg:|||%ifkhoddg%kdm$AephefpadefcOfae_h{hfknDl
Pd f qdxel ehxd{kahekh aeyh{palfpd# mfgael pnh alnp kdeehkpade{ kfe {rhcc pnh`aiihhekh ohp|hhe f oaccafep kfhh fe` deh pnfp ehyh lhp{ dii pnh ldxe`% PnhAO_D Fcxmea Kdmmapphh rdya`h{ drrdpxeapah{ pd kdeehkp rdma{ael qdxelh{hfknh{ pd rdphepafc kdccfodfpd{ fe` mhepd{# |nhpnh pndxln ap{ ehp|dgaelhyhep{# pnh AO_D Fcxmea Ifkhoddg rflh# d iaefekael AO_D Fcxmea {rhfgh{ fpefpadefc fe` hladefc mhhpael{% Pnh cfpph# ae rfpakxcf# a{ fe h~khcchep |fq id AO_D Fcxmea |nd nfyh h~rhahekh` {xkkh{{ pd nhcr h`xkfph f eh| lhehfpade diehxd{kahepa{p{ ‛ fe`# ae pnh rdkh{{# rhnfr{ ae{rah pnh eh~p a{ael {pf%Ae ?26?# AO_D Fcxmea idm fdxe` pnh |dc` {nfh` nd| pnhq nfyh mf`h pnhamfg de ehxd{kahekh pndxln {rhkafccq dlfeazh` AO_D Fcxmea [qmrd{af:
Pnh dch di od`q amflh fe` rharh{defc {rfkh ae rfae ‛ Jxcq 6< fp pnh ?26?IHE[ Idxm ae Ofkhcdef# [rfae
Pna{ |f{ pnh ia{p AO_D Fcxmea {qmrd{axm pnfp |f{ rdrd{h` oq {px`hep{ idmdeh {aelch IHE[-AO_D {knddc% Knfah` oq Fcxmea Kdmmapphh mhmoh Maknfhc[ph|fp# ap idkx{h` de pnh kxkafc f{rhkp di nd| rfae a{ aephlfph` ae od`qrhkhrpade fe` hrh{heph` decq deh di pnh kdccfodfpayh rdjhkp{ fmdel {hyhfcdi pnh [knddc‑{ fcxmea% [rhfgh{ aekcx`h`:
Jùl Pdjfe
.Khepfc Ae{papxph di Mhepfc Nhfcpn# Mfeenham# Lhmfeq!# –Od`qrhkhrpade# rharh{defc {rfkh# fe` rfae: Kcaeakfc iae`ael{ fe` kdekhrpxfcf{rhkp{”
Mfpae @ah{
.Khepfc Ae{papxph di Mhepfc Nhfcpn# Mfeenham# Lhmfeq!# –[hhqdx rfae: {aph-{rhkaiak ya{xfc ihh`ofkg h`xkh{ rfae rhkhrpade”
@afef M% Pdpf
.Xeayh{apâ `hlca [px`a `a Pdaed#Pdaed# Apfcq!# –Pnh ehxfc{xo{pfph{ di pnh kd{{h` nfe`{ fefclh{af”
 Idm rcxardphep {phm khcc{ pd kdepdc di {dkafc nahfknq ‛ Dkpdoh 60 fp pnh ?26? [dkahpq id Ehxd{kahekh Mhhpael ae Eh| Dchfe{# X[F
Pna{ {qmrd{axm# knfah` oq AO_D Fcxmea Knfa [x{fe [ff fe` AO_D [hkhpfq-Lhehfc Rahh Mfla{phppa# ihfpxh` fkkdmrca{nh` AO_D Fcxmea idm idx AO_Dhlade{ |nd fh mfgael lhfp rdlh{{ de pnh |dc` ehxd{kahekh {kheh:
[hlax R% Rf{kf
._dmfeaf fe` [pfeid` Xeayh{apq# X[F!# –Idm ae`xkh`rcxardphep {phm khcc{ pd ehxde{: kfrpxael pnh rfpndlheh{a{ di fxpa{m”
AO_D Fcxmea Kdmmapphh kdeehkp{ fe` fa{h{ rdiach{ di ap{ qdxel aeyh{palfpd{ fkd{{ pnh lcdoh
 Fmfaknf Mff @hraed
.Xeayh{apq di Oxhed{ Fah{# Flhepaef!# –_dch diofae aeicfmmfpade de pnh `hyhcdrmhep fe` h~rh{{ade difxpa{m-hcfph`ohnfyad{”
[xe`fq Oa{del
.Xeayh{apq di Kfcfof# Ealhaf!# –Fepa-hrachrpak fe` fepa-fe~ahpqhiihkp{ di chfi-h~pfkp{ di pnh Knaeh{h cfephe phh .@aknd{pfknq{ lcdmhfpf!”
Nfacfe Nx
.Ae{papxph di Ehxd{kahekh{# [nfelnfa# Knaef!# –Pnh ehxfc kakxapmhknfea{m di {dkafc nahfknq”
[ph{{ fcdel pnh caih{rfe: ehxdknhmakfc fe` ohnfyadfc kde{hvxhekh{ ‛Edyhmoh < fp pnh ?26? IFCFE Mhhpael ae Kfekúe# Mh~akd
Pna{ {qmrd{axm# knfah` oq AO_D Fcxmex{ Mfpf Fepdehcca# |f{ rh{heph` oqAO_D Fcxmea idm pnh Cfpae Fmhakfe hlade:
Mfpf K% Fepdehcca
.Ae{papxph id Khcc Oadcdlq fe` Ehxd{kahekh# Flhepaef!# /Cdel cf{pael ehxd`hyhcdrmhepfc hiihkp{ di rhefpfc {ph{{/
Rfxcf Fqfgd Paof
.Ih`hfc Xeayh{apq di FOK# Ofzac!# /Hfcq caih {ph{{ fe` ap{hiihkp{ de {chhr# ohnfyad fe` ehxdknhma{pq/
Ka{paef Mfvxhz
.Knfmrfcamfx` Ehxd{kahekh Rdlfmmh# Rdpxlfc!#/Rharxohpq {ph{{ chf`{ pd foedmfc fllh{{ade# fcphh` fmql`fcf fe`doapdidepfc hfkpayapq fe` aekhf{h` rhidepfc MFDF lheh h~rh{{adeae f`xcpndd`/
Eakdch Lfcyëd Kdhcnd
# .Ih`hfc Xeayh{apq di _ad Lfe`h `d Edph# Ofzac!#/Kd{{-pfcg di nqrdpnfcfmak-rapxapfq-f`hefc .NRF! fe` nqrdpnfcfmak-rapxapfq-ldef`fc .NRL! f~a{ `xael {dkafc {ph{{ ae kdmmde mfmd{hp{ .Kfccapna~ jfkknx{!/
EHX_DEX[ ?26? Kdeihhekh# Frac ?2-??# ae Gfgd|# Rdcfe`
EHX_DEX[ ?26? ‛ f kdeihhekh dlfeazh` oq {px`hep{ id {px`hep{ pnfp fppfkph`082 ehxd{kahepa{p{ idm 68 kdxepah{ ‛ dopfaeh` iaefekafc {xrrdp idm pnh AO_D Fcxmea Kdmmapphh# |nakn hefoch` kdeihhekh dlfeazh{ pd aeyaph p|d pxcqdxp{pfe`ael AO_D Fcxmea idm pnh \h{phe Hxdrh fe` pnh Khepfc fe` Hf{pheHxdrh hlade{:
Oheh`agp Oheaelh
.Cx`|al-Mf~amacafe{-Xeayh{apàp# Lhmfeq!# –Mfgaelehxde{ idm lcaf fe` rhakqph{: pnh |azf`q di pfe{karpade ifkpd{”
A{pyfe Gfpdef
.Ae{papxph di H~rhamhepfc Mh`akaeh# Nxelfq!# –Pnh {qefrpakkakxap-ohfgh fe` ap{ ohfg`d|e ae ofae `a{d`h{”
 AO_D Fcxmea [xe`fq Oa{del# Fmfaknf Mff @hraed# Nfacfe Nx fe` [hlax R% Rf{kf rh{heph` pnha h{hfkn fp f {rhkafc {qmrd{axm nhc` `xael pnh ?26? [dkahpq id  Ehxd{kahekh feexfc mhhpael ae Eh| Dchfe{%
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Pnh AO_D Fcxmea Kdmmapphha{ kdepaexfccq cddgael id id eh|fe` aeedyfpayh |fq{ pd nhcrhenfekh kfhh-oxac`aeldrrdpxeapah{ id qdxelehxd{kahekh aeyh{palfpd{#rfpakxcfcq pnd{h kdmael idmmdh hkdedmakfccq knfcchelh`rfp{ di pnh |dc`% Dyh pnh rf{p{hyhfc qhf{ pnh Kdmmapphh nf{ixe`h` pnh pfyhc di vxfcaiah`qdxel aeyh{palfpd{ idmdxp{a`h di Hxdrh pd rfpakarfphae f IHE[-AO_D HxdrhfeEhxd{kahekh [knddc%Pna{ qhf# pnh AO_D FcxmeaKdmmapphh {xrrdph` YhdeakfRf{pd idm Flhepaef pd fpphe`pnh IHE[-AO_D [xmmh [knddc–Khccxcf Oadcdlq di F``akpade”ae Ofkhcdef# ae Jxcq% Fkkd`aelpd AO_D Fcxmea Knfa [x{fe[ff# pnh pamael di pnh [knddcfccd|h` Yhdeakf pd fc{d fpphe`pnh IHE[ Idxm ae Ofkhcdef#|nhh {nh rh{heph` f rd{ph% Yhdeakf fc{d {rhep p|d |hhg{ya{apael f cfodfpdq ae [rfae#fe` ap a{ ndrh` pnfp pna{h~rd{xh |acc chf` pd ixpxhkdccfodfpade{%
Idmh AO_D Ihccd| [hlax Rf{kfmfgael na{ mfg xrde ehxd{kahekh
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Efpxh Mh`akaeh%
Papch` –X{ael aR[K-`hayh` ehxde{ pd xekdyh khccxcfrnhedpqrh{ f{{dkafph` |apn Pamdpnq {qe`dmh” .pnh accx{pfpade id |nakn frrhfh` de pnh kdyh di pnh jdxefc!# pnh fpakch hkfr{ pnh |dg @% Rf{kf xe`hpddg `xael na{ rd{p-`dkpdfc rd{apade fp [pfeid`Xeayh{apq .X[F! f{ rfp di pnh AO_D Ihccd|{nar nh |f{ f|f`h` ae ?221% Nh |aph{:–Ae ?22;# f{ f {hkde` qhf mh`akfc {px`hep ae _dmfeaf# A fpphe`h` fe AO_D ehxd{kahekh kdx{hdlfeazh` oq @{ Jfkg MkMfnfe fe` Jdne L Eakndcc{ ae Oxknfh{p% Ap |f{ `xael pna{ p|d-|hhg kdx{hpnfp A `hka`h` pd rx{xh h{hfkn ae ehxdoadcdlq% [dde fiph# A ohkfmh aephh{ph` ae fxpa{m# fe` |apn{xrrdp idm AO_D# A nf` pnh drrdpxeapq pd ohlae mq pfaeael ae pna{ iahc` pndxln hedccmhep ae f Kdc`[rael Nfod kdx{h rxp pdlhpnh oq pdr kcaeakafe{ fe` of{ak {kahepa{p{ {px`qael pnh ehxdoadcdlq difxpa{m% Pna{ h~rhahekh {nfrh` mq ramfq ldfc# pd rx{xh kxppael-h`lh h{hfkn ae ehxdoadcdlqfamh` fp xekdyhael pnh khccxcf fe` mdchkxcf mhknfea{m{ id fxpa{m fe` `hyhcdrael hiihkpayhpnhfrhxpak{%–Fiph lf`xfpael idm Mh`akfc [knddc# A yhq mxkn |feph` pd jdae _akf`d @dcmh{kn‑{ cfo fp [pfeid`Xeayh{apq id rd{p`dkpdfc pfaeael# fe` A ammh`afphcq ohlfe pd frrcq id ixe`ael% Kdxrch` |apn pnhaenhhep a{gaeh{{ di pnh rdjhkp# f{ |hcc f{ mq cfkg di h~rhahekh .A nfyh ed idmfc h{hfkn pfaeaelfe` nf` ed h~rhahekh ae {phm khcc oadcdlq phkneavxh{!# hyhq h{hfkn rdrd{fc A {xomapph` |f{ mhp|apn hjhkpade% Pnh{h `a{frrdaepmhep{ nf` ehfcq rdmrph` mh pd rd{prdeh mq h{hfkn kfhh rfpn#|nhe AO_D f|f`h` mh pnh rd{p`dkpdfc ihccd|{nar fp [pfeid` Xeayh{apq% Pna{ ihccd|{nar rdyh` pdoh f kapakfccq amrdpfep mdmhep ae mq kfhh pfjhkpdq f{ ap fiid`h`mh fcc pnh drrdpxeapah{ pnfp nfyh {aekh idccd|h`%–Fp [pfeid`# A dopfaeh` h~khcchep pfaeael fe` mhepd{nar fe` A nf`pnh knfekh pd pnayh fp deh di pnh pdr ehxd{kahekh kheph{ ae pnh|dc`% Dx frrdfkn pd {px`qael fxpa{m x{ael ae yapd `hayh`ehxde{ idm rfpahep{ ch` pd yhq rdma{ael h{xcp{ pnfp |hh hkhepcqrxoca{nh` ae
Efpxh Mh`akaeh#
fe` h~kapael idccd|-xr {px`ah{ f{ |hccf{ eh| rdjhkp{ pnfp fh xe`h|fq% Pnh {xrrdp idm AO_D |f{ fc{dae{pxmhepfc ae pnh rx{xap di rhcamaefq |dg pnfp nf{ fccd|h` mhpd {hkxh f``apadefc ixe`ael .aeapafccq pnh Pf{naf ) Jdne Mdla`lhIhccd|{nar# fe` mdh hkhepcq pnh EF_[F@ Qdxel Aeyh{palfpd F|f`!% Pnh{h fh h~kapael pamh{ id ehxd{kahekh h{hfkn fe` Apxcq ohcahyh |h fh de pnh yhlh di `hyhcdrael f eh|ehxdr{qknafpq# deh pnfp a{ mdchkxcfcq ddph`% Pnhhidh# A {pfqh{dcxph ae mq `hka{ade pd rx{xh fe fkf`hmak kfhh ae of{ak fe`pfe{cfpadefc {kahekh{ aeidmh` oq mq mh`akfc ofkgldxe`%”
[hlax Rf{kx
AO_D FCXMEAAE PNH [RDPCALNP
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