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Table Of Contents

INTRODUCTION
ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING SPECIALTIES
Definition of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronics and Communications Group
Computer Engineering Group
Biomedical Engineering Group
MISCELLANEOUS ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING FIELDS OF ACTIVITIES
Mechatronics
Automotive Industry
Avionics
Biomedical Engineering Extensions
Cognitive Radio
Fiber Optics Communication Systems
QUANTITIES, UNITS AND STANDARDS
Basic Units and Derived Units
Standards
Prefixes
PROBLEMS
Review Questions
BIBLIOGRAPHY
FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMPONENTS
ENERGY SOURCES
The Atom and Subatomic Particles
Electricity
Generation of Electrical Energy
Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy
CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS
Wire Conductors
Types of Fixed Resistors
Adjustable Resistors
Resistor Marking
Preferred Values
Power Ratings of Resistors
Resistors at High Frequencies
Noise in Resistors
Failure Modes
CAPACITORS
Non-Ideal Behavior
Capacitor Types
Applications of Capacitors
Capacitive Sensing
Hazards and Safety
Supercapacitors - Electric Double-Layer Capacitors
INDUCTORS
Types of Inductors
Inductors in Electric Circuits
TRANSFORMER
Operation and Practical Considerations
General Questions
Useful Websites
MEASUREMENT AND ERROR
CHARACTERISTICS OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
Definition of Terms
Static Calibration
Accuracy and Precision
Accuracy versus Precision
Significant Figures
Types of Errors (Uncertainties)
ANALYSIS OF MEASUREMENT DATA
Arithmetic Mean
Deviation from the Mean
Probability of Errors
Some MS Excel Functions
Determining Random Errors
UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS
Mathematical Analysis of the Uncertainty
Sample and Population Statistics
THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
Need for the Experiment
Design of the Experiment
Optimization
Important Reminder
Solved Examples
Measurement of Electrical Quantities / 151
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES
PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENTS
MOVING COIL IN MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
Balancing the Electromagnetic Torque by a Spring Torque
The Galvanometer
MC BASED MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
MC in Analog Electrical Measuring Instruments
Basic DC Ammeter (Ampermeter)
Multi-Range Ammeters
A Basic DC Voltmeter
Multi-Range Voltmeters
Ohm and VOM Meters
LOADING ERRORS
Instrument Loading
Loading Errors in Ammeters
Loading Errors in Voltmeters
AC VOLTMETERS
Average and RMS Values
The Full-Wave Rectifier
Form Factor and Waveform Errors
Clamp-On Meters
True RMS Meters
ELECTRONIC COUNTERS
Oscilloscope Versus Electronic Counters and Digital Voltmeters
Time and Frequency Measurements
Devices Commonly Used in Electronic Measuring Instruments
The Counter in Frequency Mode
The Counter in Time-Period Mode
The Counter in Time-Interval Mode
Errors in Measurements Using Counters
Measurement of Rotative Speed
THE DIGITAL VOLTMETER (DVM)
Use, Advantages and Operation
Integrating Type Analog to Digital Converters
Successive Approximation Type DVM
MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICITY
Utilization of Electrical Energy
Measuring Electric Power
PROBLEMS ON MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
Solved Examples on Moving Coil Instruments
Questions with Solutions
Further Reading
OSCILLOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS AND PICTURE DISPLAYS
WAVEFORM DISPLAY DEVICES
Operating Principles of an Oscilloscope
Simplified Block Diagram of an Oscilloscope
BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS
Electrostatic Deflection
Operation in Sweep Mode
Operation in X-Y Mode
MULTI-TRACE OSCILLOSCOPES
DIGITAL STORAGE OSCILLOSCOPES (DSO)
Necessity for DSO and Its Advantages
Principles of Operation
Current Trends
VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION
Definition
Components of Virtual Instrumentation
Virtual Instrumentation for Design
PICTURE DISPLAY
Generation and Presentation of Picture
The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
Liquid Crystals
Painting the Screen
Emerging Display Technologies
SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
LINEAR REGULATED POWER SUPPLIES
Definitions
AC Line Components for An Unregulated Power Supply
Rectifiers
Smoothing Filters
Linear (Dissipative )Regulators
Protection of Circuits in Case of Regulator Failure
SWITCH-REGULATED (SWITCHING) POWER SUPPLY
Linear Versus Switching
General Layout of the Switching Power Supply
Rectifiers and Filters of a Switching Power Supply
Switching Regulator Configurations
Overall Look Into Advantages and Disadvantages of Switching Supplies
Summary of Key Formulas that Help in Solving Power Supply Problem
BATTERIES
Categories and Types
Battery Capacity
Care and Maintenance of Batteries
How to Prevent Electrical Shocks?
Office Electrical Safety
PROBLEMS ON SOURCES OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
Exercises on Power Supplies
Exercises on Batteries
Exercises on Electrical Safety
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
BASIC PRINCIPLES
Definition of Temperature
Temperature Scale
Reference Temperatures
TEMPERATURE MEASURING DEVICES
Thermocouples
Resistance Temperature Devices
Radiation Detectors (Infrared Sensors)
Integrated Circuit (I.C.) Sensors
Bimetallic Devices
Fluid-Expansion Devices
Chemical (Change-of-State) Sensors
Comparison of Practical Temperature Measurement Devices
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT USING THERMOCOUPLES
Empirical Laws of Thermocouples
Measuring Thermocouple Voltage with a Digital Voltmeter (DVM)
The Reference Junction
Reference Circuit: External Reference Junction – No Ice Bath
External Reference Junction – No Ice Bath
Why Thermocouple is Used?
Examples for Thermocouple and Temperature Measurement
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT USING THERMISTORS
Thermistor Linearization
Thermistor Thermometry
PROBLEMS ON TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS
MEASUREMENT OF DISPLACEMENT AND MECHANICAL STRAIN
DISPLACEMENT SENSORS
Resistive Sensors
Inductive Sensors
Capacitive Sensors
Circuit Configuration
Null-mode of Operation
Deflection-mode of Operation
BRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS FOR STRAIN GAGE MEASUREMENTS
Bridge with a Single Active Element (Quarter Bridge)
Bridge with Two Active Elements (Half Bridge)
Bridge with Four Active Elements (Full Bridge)
Generalized Instrumentation System
NOVEL PRESSURE SENSORS
Quantum Tunneling Composites
Applications
PROBLEMS ON MEASUREMENT OF MECHANICAL QUANTITIES
PRACTICAL AND REPORTING
LABORATORY NOTES AND SHEETS
General Guidelines in Presenting Technical Work
The Formal Laboratory Report
General Requirements
Specific Contents of the Report
More On Graphs
One-Page Lab Report
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR EXPERIMENTS
Preparation for Experiments
Summary of Operation of Oscilloscopes
Preliminary Work
Experimental Procedure
Results and Discussions:
DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTIC OF AN INCANDESCENT LAMP
Preparations Before the Experiment
Results
Discussions and Conclusions
DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTIC OF A CAPACITOR
Capacitors to be used
Reminder for the experimental procedures
REGULATED POWER SUPPLY
Experiment
TERM PROJECT
Important Questions to Answer
Duties
Elements of the Report
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
A – QUANTITIES, UNITS AND STANDARDS
Basic and Derived Units
B – OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
Characteristics and basic amplifiers configurations using op-amps
Inverting amplifiers
C – VISUAL DISPLAYS
C.1 INTRODUCTION
C.2 CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)
C.3 IMPORTANT OSCILLOSCOPE CIRCUITS
C.4 CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) BASED PICTURE DISPLAYS
C.5 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS4
C.6 PAINTING THE PICTURE
C.7 EMERGING DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES
C.8 TOUCH SCREEN MONITORS
D – PRETEST
E – EXIT SURVEY
F – RUBRICS FOR STUDENT OUTCOMES SUPPORTED BY EE 306
Assessment Rubric for Outcome "b"
Assessment Rubric for Outcome "d"
Assessment Rubric for Outcome "f"
Assessment Rubric for Outcome "k"
Assessment Rubric for Outcome "l"
INDEX
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Electrical Measurement & Instrumentation

Electrical Measurement & Instrumentation

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Published by Er. Amar Kumar
Measuring devices, Measurement systems in Electrical & Electronics engineering Applications.
Measuring devices, Measurement systems in Electrical & Electronics engineering Applications.

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Published by: Er. Amar Kumar on Jan 29, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/25/2013

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