# Q1. What do you mean by harmonics?

Definition for a harmonic is-a sinusoidal component of a periodic wave or quantity having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.

The main sources of harmonic component are the phase angle controlled rectifiers and inverters due to the fast switching action and firing scheme. Filters are used to eliminate these harmonics as they may cause overheating of capacitors and nearby generators and interfere with telecommunication systems. Q2.Hunting of a synchronous motor: When the mechanical load is constant, the rotor settles down to an absolutely constant speed with the torque angle fixed by the particular delivered power. When there is a change in load the rotor speed changes momentarily until the torque angle adjusts itself to the new power. If the load increases, the rotor slips backwards to an increased torque angle, while reduction causes the rotor to advance a smaller torque angle. Due to the M.I of the rotor either it overshoots or undershoots the mean position. During this overshooting and undershooting some K.E. is stored in the rotor which causes oscillation of the rotor periodically. This rapid forward and backward motion of the rotor as it resolves at the average constant speed is called HUNTING.

DISADVANTAGES: Hunting is an objectionable characteristic of a synch motor as it produces severe mechanical stress as well as great variation in current and power taken by the motor. In order to prevent hunting, dampers (or) damping grids are employed. Damper windings are short circuited; copper bars are embedded in the faces of the field poles of the motor. Question: what is "p.u." in electrical engg and what is the advantage of p.u. quantities? Answer: p.u. stands for per unit (p.u=actual value/base value). Advantages:   wide variation of electrical parameters gets eliminated by p.u. representation Since the p.u. impedances of any component remains the same on either side of a transformer, a power system can be analyzed on a single voltage level as the different voltage level vanishes.

Question: Give two basic speed control scheme of DC shunt motor? Answer: 1. By using flux control method: in this method a rheostat is connected across the field wdg to control the field current. So by changing the current the flux produced by the field wdg can be changed, and since speed is inversely proportional to flux speed can be controlled. 2. Armature control method: in this method a rheostat is connected across armature wdg and by varying the resistance the value of resistive drop (IaRa) can be varied, and since speed is directly proportional to Eb-IaRa the speed can be controlled. Question: what is meant by armature reaction? Answer: The action of armature m.m.f. on the main m.m.f. is known as armature reaction. Question: Enlist the types of dc machines? Answer: D.C. machines are classified into two types 1) separately excited 2) self excited which is further classified into 1)series 2)shunt and 3)compound(which is further classified into cumulative and differential). Question: why, when birds sit on transmission lines doesn't get shock? Answer: It’s true that if birds touch the single one line (phase or neutral) they don't get electrical shock... if birds touch 2 lines than the circuit is closed and they get electrical shock... so if a human being touches single one line (phase) then he doesn't get shock .if he is standing on the ground then touching the line (phase) he will get a shock because the ground on what we are standing is like line (ground bed - like neutral) that means that human who touches the line closes the circuit between phase and neutral.

It deals with generation. Why AC systems are preferred over DC systems? Due to following reasons. called on grid systems and they might work on off grid systems that are not connected to the system. as the sine wave current will naturally tend to zero at some point making the current easier to interrupt. transformers etc) is much lower than the equivalent DC transmission c. can be categorized in three forms: • Low-tension cables. What are the various kind of cables used for transmission? Cables. When a large fault occurs in a network. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid i. From power stations. Plant cost for AC transmission (circuit breakers.e. Generator persists stationary magnetic field and rotating conductor which rolls on the armature with slip rings and brushes riding against each other. AC systems are preferred over DC systems: a. • Super tension cables can transmit voltage 66 kV to 132 kV. b. d. Why back emf used for a dc motor? Highlight its significance. Both have the same principle of electromagnetic induction. which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. • High-tension cables can transmit voltage up to 23000 volts. hence it converts the induced emf into dc current for external load whereas an alternator has a stationary armature and rotating magnetic field for high voltages but for low voltage output rotating armature and stationary magnetic field is used. that is why current also reduces up to 3 times and hence less motor burning is caused. transmission and distribution of energy in electrical form. State the difference between generator and alternator Generator and alternator are two devices. Design of all power equipments also comes under power engineering. It is easy to maintain and change the voltage of AC electricity for transmission and distribution. starting torque is increased and it prevents the damage of motor winding. which can transmit voltage up to 1000 volts. How can you relate power engineering with electrical engineering? Power engineering is a sub division of electrical engineering. the only difference is that their construction. which are used for transmitting power. it is easier to interrupt in an AC system.times. AC is produced so it is better to use AC then DC instead of converting it. . • In addition.

Then rotor poles are excited due to which the rotor field is locked with the statorrevolving field and continuous rotation is obtained. rural areas where electricity supplies are not possible. • For starting. • The energy can be drawn at a fairly constant rate. opposes the current flowing through the conductor. banks. What is slip in an induction motor? Slip can be defined as the difference between the flux speed (Ns) and the rotor speed (N). When it picks up speed. the value of back emf is zero. • By providing damper winding: Here. aircrafts etc. • As a supply power source in telephone exchange. is called back emf. some of the applications are mentioned below: For the operation of protective devices and for emergency lighting at generating stations and substations. • Stored energy is available immediately because there is no lag of time for delivering the stored energy. bar conductors are embedded in the outer periphery of the rotor poles and are short-circuited with the short-circuiting rings at both sides. laboratories and broad casting stations. ignition and lighting of automobiles. Storage batteries are used for various purposes. excitation is given to the . It is usually expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed (Ns) and represented by the symbol ‘S’. • For emergency lighting at hospitals. Explain advantages of storage batteries Few advantages of storage batteries are mentioned below: • Most efficient form of storing energy portably. cut the magnetic flux. The machine is started as a squirrel cage induction motor first. • Reliable source for supply of energy. • For lighting on steam and diesel railways trains. in a DC motor. Speed of the rotor of an induction motor is always less than its synchronous speed. What are the different methods for the starting of a synchronous motor? Starting methods: Synchronous motor can be started by the following two methods: • By means of an auxiliary motor: The rotor of a synchronous motor is rotated by auxiliary motor. Explain the application of storage batteries. In starting. when the armature rotates.The induced emf developed when the rotating conductors of the armature between the poles of magnet. Its value depends upon the speed of rotation of the armature conductors.

• Lathes – DC shunt motors. rolling mills. phonographic appliances. • Rolling mills – Cumulative motors. the voltage across the two terminals when RL is removed) and sum of load resistance and internal resistance of the network.rotor and the rotor starts rotating continuously as the rotor field is locked with stator revolving field. State Thevenin’s Theorem: According to thevenin’s theorem. • Refrigerators – Capacitor split phase motors. refrigerators. power factor improvement and cranes. • Power factor improvement – Synchronous motors. It is given by Voc / (Ri + RL). vending machines. The output terminals are equivalent to the constant source of current and it allows giving the parallel resistance. The parallel resistance of the network can be viewed from the open circuit terminals when all the voltage and current sources are removed and replaced by the internal resistance. • Phonographic appliances – Hysteresis motor. • Vending machines – Shaded pole motor. Following motors are used: • Vacuum cleaners.e. State Norton’s Theorem The Norton’s theorem explains the fact that there are two terminals and they are as follows: • One is terminal active network containing voltage sources • Another is the resistance that is viewed from the output terminals. Name the types of motors used in vacuum cleaners. This includes the maximum power from the network and in this case the load resistance is being is equal to the resistance of the network and it also allows the resistance to be equal to the resistance of the network. lathes. State Maximum power transfer theorem The Maximum power transfer theorem explains about the load that a resistance will extract from the network. the current flowing through a load resistance Connected across any two terminals of a linear active bilateral network is the ratio open circuit voltage (i. The Norton’s theorem also explains about the constant current that is equal to the current of the short circuit placed across the terminals. Explain different losses in a transformer. .Universal motor. This resistance can be viewed by the output terminals and the energy sources can be removed by leaving the internal resistance behind 15.

19. Reserve generating capacity: Extra generation capacity installed to meet the need of scheduled downtimes for preventive maintenance is called reserve-generating capacity. the current will start flowing in the load in the secondary winding. As a result. Maximum Demand: It is maximum load demand required in a power station during a given period. resulting in the flow of additional current in the secondary winding. Working principle of operation of a single-phase transformer can be explained as An AC supply passes through the primary winding. a current will start flowing in the primary winding. This requires a large conductor size . Reliability: It is the capacity of the power system to serve all power demands without failure over long periods. Hence. Hence. hence extra regulation equipment is required to keep voltage drop within prescribed limits. • Maximum demand. when the load is connected to the secondary side. 20. • Larger generators and transformers are required.Comment on the working principle of operation of a single-phase transformer. voltage is induced in both the windings. Hence. The voltage induced in the primary winding is due to its self inductance and known as self induced emf and according to Lenz’s law it will oppose the cause i. Mention the disadvantages of low power factor? How can it be improved? Disadvantages of low power factor: • Line losses are 1. Define the following terms:• Reliability. • Availability (operational). transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. supply voltage hence called as back emf. according to Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction. • Reserve-generating capacity.e.57 times unity power factor. Availability: As the percentage of the time a unit is available to produce power whether needed by the system or not. • Low lagging power factor causes a large voltage drop. • Greater conductor size: To transmit or distribute a fixed amount of power at fixed voltage. The voltage induced in secondary coil is known as mutually induced voltage. emf will be induced in both the windings. the conductors will have to carry more current at low power factor. Now. the flux is set. This flux is linked with primary and secondary windings.

Expressed as W or kW.e. The choice of electrical system for an aero turbine is guided by three factors: • Type of electrical output: dc. • Aero turbine always operates at maximum efficiency point. P = V I cos j and basic unit of real power is watt. the induction motor can be made to operate on leading power factor like an overexcited synchronous motor. . • Reactive Power: It is the product of voltage. i. It provides exciting ampere turns to the rotor circuit of the motor. Maximum demand. • Real Power: It is the product of voltage. Define the following: Average demand. Demand factor. for the choice of electrical system for an aero turbine. • A synchronous motor takes a leading current when over excited and therefore behaves like a capacitor. • Aero turbine rotational speed: constant speed with variable blade pitch. State the methods of improving power factor? Methods of improving power factor: • By connecting static capacitors in parallel with the load operating at lagging power factor. Apparent power = V I and basic unit of apparent power is volt. Expressed as VA or KVA. • By using phase advancers to improve the power factor of induction motors. By providing more ampere-turns than required. 23. What are the advantages of VSCF wind electrical system? Advantages of VSCF wind electrical system are: • No complex pitch changing mechanism is needed. current and sine of angle between the voltage and current i. Load factor. State the factors. and constant.e.e. • Utilization of electrical energy output: in conjunction with battery or other form of storage.21. Explain the terms real power. apparent power and reactive power for ac circuits and also the units used. current and power factor i. Reactive power = voltage X current X sinj or Reactive power = V I sin j and has no other unit but expressed in VAR or KVAR.changing mechanism or variable speed with fixed pitch blades.ampere. • Extra energy in the high wind speed region of the speed – duration curve can be extracted • Significant reduction in aerodynamic stresses. which are associated with constant – speed operation.frequency ac. or interconnection with power grid. 24. variable.frequency ac. 22. • Apparent power: It is the product of voltage and current. nearly constant speed with simpler pitch.

• When JFET is operated with a reverse-bias on the junction. over a prescribed time interval during a certain period.• Average Demand: the average power requirement during some specified period of time of considerable duration is called the average demand of installation. if the gate is forward-biased. Junctions that experience breakdown above 5v are caused by avalanche-effect. • MOSFET’s have input impedance much higher than that of JFET’s. • DC or Static Resistance: DC resistance can be explained as the ratio of the dc-voltage across the diode to the direct current flowing through it. How does Zener phenomenon differ from Avalanche breakdown? The phenomenon when the depletion region expands and the potential barrier increases leading to a very high electric field across the junction. which have occurred during a given period. • Maximum Demand: The maximum demand of an installation is defined as the greatest of all the demand. 26. static resistance and dynamic resistance of a pn junction diode. Comparison of JFET’s and MOSFET’s: • JFET’s can only be operated in the depletion mode whereas MOSFET’s can be operated in either depletion or in enhancement mode. It is the resistance offered by a diode to the changing forward current. Explain forward resistance. It is measured accordingly to specifications. The avalanche breakdown occurs in lightly doped junctions. Thus is due to negligible small leakage current. • Demand Factor: It is defined as the ratio of actual maximum demand made by the load to the rating of the connected load. which produce wide depletion layers. the gate-current IG is larger than it would be in a comparable MOSFET. 28. • Load Factor: It is defined as the ratio of the average power to the maximum demand. which produce narrow depletion layers. Diode junctions that breakdown below 5v are caused by Zener Effect. Zener-breakdown or Avalanche breakdown may occur independently or both of these may occur simultaneously. 27. excess-carrier injunction occurs and the gate-current is substantial. due to which suddenly the reverse current increases under a very high reverse voltage is called Zener effect. . In a JFET. • AC or Dynamic Resistance: It can be defined as the reciprocal of the slope of the forward characteristic of the diode. is called forward-resistance. Compare JFET’s and MOSFET’s. The Zener-breakdown occurs in heavily doped junctions. • Forward Resistance: Resistance offered in a diode circuit. when it is forward biased. • JFET’s have characteristic curves more flat than that of MOSFET is indicating a higher drain resistance.

If a differential amplifier is perfect. It is used with generators for charging a number of capacitor in parallel and discharging them in series. and low temperature coefficients. . The cut-off rate indicates the ability of the system to distinguish between the signal and the noise What is Phase cross over frequency? Answer: The frequency at which the phase of the open loop transfer function is 180o is called the phase cross over frequency. What is a differential amplifier? Also. Desired results are obtained by either trimming the layer thickness or by cutting helical grooves of suitable pitch along its length. These wires are made of materials such as Constantan and Manganin because of their high resistivity. the value of the resistance is monitored closely and cutting of grooves is stopped as soon as the desired value of resistance is obtained. Thin film resistors. explain CMRR. 3. Differential Amplifier: The amplifier. What is Resonant peak? Answer: Resonant peak is defined as the maximum value of the closed loop transfer function.A large resonant peak corresponds to large overshoot in the transient respose What is Resonant Frequency? Answer: The frequency at which resonant peak occurs is called the resonant frequency.30. What is Cut-off rate? Answer: The slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cut-off frequency is called the cut-off rate. Explain thin film resistors and wire-wound resistors a. During this process. Wire wound resistors – length of wire wound around an insulating cylindrical core are known as wire wound resistors. This reduces the amount of noise injected into the amplifier. It is used when voltage required for testing is higher than the available. CMRR: It can be defined as the ratio of differential voltage-gain to common made voltage gain.It is constructed as a thin film of resistive material is deposited on an insulating substrate. The complete wire wound resistor is coated with an insulating material such as baked enamel 31. CMRR would be infinite because in that case common mode voltage gain would be zero. Explain Marx circuit. Resonance frequency explains about the speed of the transient response. b. is called differential amplifier. because any noise appearing simultaneously on both the input-terminals as the amplifying circuitry rejects it being a common mode signal. which is used to amplify the voltage difference between two input-lines neither of which is grounded.

the operation variation in the frequency and voltage allowed is given as below. Voltage variations exist in the power grid is due to the mismatch in the reactive power between demand (MVAR) and available. Voltage and Frequency operating range (tolerance) of Grid Supply in India Frequency variation in the power system exists due to the mismatch between the supply of power and demand for the power.What is Gain Margin? Answer: The Gain Margin is defined as the reciprocal of the magnitude of open loop transfer function at phase cross over frequency. . In spite of all these variations there is certain limit for the operation limits (variations allowed) for voltage and frequency parameters dictated by the Grid Code.5 Hz Voltage operating variation limit: Voltage Rating 400 kV 220 kV 132 kV Maximum Voltage 420 kV 245 kV 145 kV Minimum Voltage 360 kV 200 kV 120 kV Islanding operation in Electrical Grid Frequency and Voltage are two important parameters which decides the healthiness of the electrical grid at a particular instant of time. In India according to Electricity Grid Code. Frequency Operating variation limits: 49Hz to 50. Any variations in the parameters (voltage and frequency) below operating limits considered as power grid is unhealthy and restoration steps will be taken to make the power grid healthy. The gain margin indicates the amount by which the gain of the system can be increased without affecting the stability of the system Phase Margin? Answer: The phase margin is the amount of additional phase lag at the gain cross over frequency required to bring the system to the verge of instability.

Islanding Operation: When the frequency of the overall electrical grid is declining below the rated at pre determined frequency Electrical grid is divided into number of small islands which contains some generation units and load centers come out of the grid and operate together until the normal frequency is restored. Because of this main reason SF6 gas is used for arc quenching and insulation medium in circuit breakers. chemically inert. Both under frequency and over frequency operation is harmful to the operation of power system. Hence frequency in the power system drops below the rated.6oC and can be liquefied by compression  Very good insulant with high dielectric strength  SF6 gas is electo-negitive ( tends to attract the free electrons and has the arc quenching property). This method of splitting the electrical grid in to small Islands is to protect the healthy part of the grid. electrical breakdown of sf6 gas does not result in permanent deterioration of its properties  Decomposition occurs on the exposure to the electric arc.6g/l at 20oC (5 times denser than air)  Critical temperature is at 45. In electrical grid over frequency operation is a rare phenomenon. non toxic  No poisonous effect on the human body but decomposition products are poisonous  Color less and odor less  It is gaseous at normal room temperature and pressure  Density is about 6. When the frequency tends to drop governor systems connected to the Turbo-Generators in electrical grid will act and allow more steam to flow to turbine and increase the speed. (Disassociation products will be SF2 and SF4 lower order fluorides) Why Surge Tank require in Hydro Power Plant Surge tank is a small storage tank or reservoir required in the hydro power plants for regulating the water flow during load reduction and sudden increase in the load on the hydro generator (water flow transients in penstock) and thus reducing the pressure on the penstock. Properties of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) gas Sulfur hexafluoride gas (SF6) gas properties:  Heavy. Beyond certain limit of operation if grid frequency is drop Islanding operation is employed in the grid. However there is limitation for this band. . This is the advantage of surge tank. Most of the cases we observe frequency drop phenomenon due to lack of power generation supporting the demand.Frequency fluctuations occur in the electrical grid when there is mismatch between the amount of power generation and amount of power demand.  The gas is highly stable  Unlike solid insulation materials.

Open Circuit Test: This test isalso called as no load test. Class Y: Maximum hot spot temperature for this type of insulator is 90oC Some of the materials used are cotton. silk. This test helps to determine the core losses in the transformer. Class E. and Paper when suitably impregnated are the type of materials used Class E: Hot spot temperature is 120oC Materials possessing degree of thermal stability allowing them to be operated at a temperature 15oC above higher than Class A. Insulation Materials used in Transformers and Induction Motors Insulation materials used in transformers and motors are classified based on the temperature withstand capability. These open circuit and short circuit tests are carried out not by directly loading on the transformer. transformers draw only the power required to supply iron and copper losses of the transformers. Class H and Class C. Silk. Core Losses and Copper Losses can be determined from the open circuit and short circuit tests respectively. Some of the insulation classes used in transformers and induction motors are: Class Y. Therefore by carrying out these two indirect tests efficiency at different loads and regulation of the transformer can be determined for different power factors. Ex: wire. In open circuit and short circuit tests no information is obtained about the temperature rise. Class A. paper. Sumpner's Test: This is also called back to back test. two identical transformers are load to the full power like regenerative test in dc machines. enamel etc Class B: . Class F. Class B. wood without impregnated Class A: Maximum hot spot temperature for this type of insulator is 105oC Cotton. Short Circuit Test: Short Circuit test of a transformer helps to determine the full load copper losses for a given transformer. In sumpner's test.

glass fibre. In this region scr exhibits the reverse blocking characteristics similar to diode. called Latching current. glass. porcelain. etc with suitable impregnation or coating substance Class F: Hot spot temperature is 155oC Mica. A small leakage current flow in this mode of operation of the thyristor Forward conduction region: when the forward voltage applied between the anode and cathode increases at particular break over voltage avalanche breakdown takes place and thyristor starts conducting current in forward direction. glass. Reverse blocking region: When the cathode of the thyristor is made positive with respect to the anode and no gate signal is applied. asbestos etc with suitable binding impregnation or coating substances capable of withstanding 25oC higher than Class B Class H: Maximum hotspot temperature of 180oC Combination of materials such as mica. 2) Job Question: What is Latching current? Answer:Gate signal is to be applied to the thyristor to trigger the thyristor ON in safe mode. asbestos suitably bonded Class C: Hotspot temperature above 180oC Mica. By this type of triggering the device damages the scr. Hence a gate signal is applied before the forward break over voltage to trigger the scr. asbestos. When the thyristor starts conducting the forward current above the minimum value. Glass fibre. . Forward blocking region: In this region the anode of the thyristor is made positive with respect to the cathode and no gate signal is applied to the thyristor. quartz and asbestos with and without inorganic binder 1) Job Question: What are the different operation regions of the SCR? Answer: SCR or thyristor will have three regions of operations based on the mode in which the device is connected in the circuit. the gate signal which is applied to trigger the device in no longer require to keep the scr in ON position.Maximum hotspot temperature is 130oC Mica.

When a gate signal is applied thyristor turns on before reaching the break over voltage. Higher is the gate current lower is the forward break over voltage 6) Job Question: What are the different losses that occur in thyristor while operating? Answer:Different losses that occur are     Forward conduction losses during conduction of the thyristor Loss due to leakage current during forward and reverse blocking. at forward break over voltage thyristor starts conducting. By controlling the amount of charge we can control the turning on time of the scr. 4) Job Question:Why thyristor is considered as Charge controlled device? Answer:During the triggering process of the thyristor from forward blocking state to forward conduction state through the gate signal. lesser is the time required to inject the charge and turning on the scr. However this process may damage the thyristor. so thyristor is advices to trigger on through the gate pulse. Latching current is associated with the turn on process of the scr whereas holding current is associated with the turn off process. Higher the magnitude of the gate current pulse. Forward voltage at which the thyristor triggers on depends on the magnitude of the gate current. scr will return to forward blocking state when the anode current or forward current falls below a low level called Holding current Note: Latching current and Holding current are not same. 5) Job Question: What is the relation between the gate signal and forward break over voltage (VBO)? Answer:Thyristor can be triggered by increasing the forward voltage between anode and cathode. Power loss at gate or Gate triggering loss.3) Job Question:What is Holding current ? Answer:When scr is conducting current in forward conduction state. In general holding current will be slightly lesser than the latching current. Switching losses at turn-on and turn-off. by applying the gate signal (voltage between gate and cathode) increases the minority carrier density in the p-layer and thereby facilitate the reverse break over of the junction J2 and thyristor starts conducting. Different Levels of SCADA? Answer: Different levels are SCADA systems are: Field level devices and instruments eg: Sensors Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) Communication system present between the RTUs and Main Station .