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Pulse Broadening Induced by Second Order and Third Order Dispersion in a Dispersive Fiber

Pulse Broadening Induced by Second Order and Third Order Dispersion in a Dispersive Fiber

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Published by JournalofICT
Journal of Information and Communication Technologies, ISSN 2047-3168, Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013

www.jict.co.uk
Journal of Information and Communication Technologies, ISSN 2047-3168, Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2013

www.jict.co.uk

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Published by: JournalofICT on Apr 10, 2013
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JOURNAL OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES, VOLUME 3, ISSUE 4, APRIL 201316
Pulse Broadening Induced by Second Orderand Third Order Dispersion in a DispersiveFiber
Sher Shermin A. Khan and Md. S. Islam
Abstract
As data rates of telecom systems increase, new technical challenges appear, including the adverse effects of signalbroadening caused by second and third order dispersion. The frequency dependence of the propagation velocity leads to pulsebroadening simply because different spectral components of the pulse disperse during propagation and do not arrivesimultaneously at the fiber output; the shorter part of an optical pulse propagates faster than its larger part, resulting inprogressive pulse broadening. To estimate the extent of pulse broadening in single mode fiber, an analytic expression for thepulse broadening is obtained. It is found that the pulse broadening induced by dispersion fluctuation can be quite large at highbit rates, and the effect of third order dispersion is also significant at high bit rate.
Index Terms
Dispersive fiber, Gaussian pulse, pulse broadening, second order dispersion, third order dispersion.
——————————
 
 
——————————
 
1 I
NTRODUCTION
ITH the rapid increase of information industry inthe world, high speed and big capacity communica-tion networks become more and more insistent. It is wellknown that pulse broadening by dispersion becomes themajor obstacle for up-gradation to these fiber optic com-munication systems [1]. To solve the problem the disper-sion management techniques need to apply in which thegroup velocity dispersion (GVD) is interned along thefiber link in such a way the average GVD remains closedto zero [2]. Two mechanisms play important roles inchromatic dispersion, material dispersion and waveguidedispersion [3]. Material dispersion is pulse spreading due
to the dispersive properties of the material. The silica’s
refractive index is different for various wavelengths. Wa-veguide dispersion is the pulse broadening due to thegeometric properties of the fiber. The pulse will spreadsimply because light is confined within a structure havingdifferent refractive indexes in the core-cladding combina-tion of the fiber [1]. Environmental changes such as tem-perature fluctuations can introduce time-dependentchanges in the fiber dispersion. Such changes are relative-ly small but becomes significant at long transmission linkand at high bit rate [4-5]. In modern transmission systemsthe single channel bit rate exceeds 40 Gb/s. It is shownthat the third order dispersion (TOD) of fibers negativelyinfluences the transmission systems at high bit rate [6].The pulse broadening induced by dispersion fluctuationscan be quite large in dispersion-managed Lightwave sys-tems, especially at high bit rates, and can exceed that in-duced by TOD and polarization mode dispersion [7].Recently Analytical formulas for pulse width evolution inoptical communication systems are derived using theVolterra series transfer function, analytically predict thepulse propagation through optical fiber incorporatinglinear and nonlinear effects [8-9].The pulse broadening factor T(z)/T0 defined as the ra-tio of optical output width to input pulse width, is widelyused to evaluate the performance of communication sys-tems as it is a direct way to calculate the effect of disper-sion on optical transmission systems. In this paper, ananalytical relation for pulse broadening factor in disper-sive fiber systems is derived. Numerical simulations pro-vide accurate results but analytical expressions offer greatadvantages in estimation of various parameters based ontheir influence on system performance. Approximateformulas with good accuracy for T(z)/T0 as fiber parame-ters do not vary along fiber length. Formulas for pulsebroadening factor derived based on the idea that the ef-fect of nonlinearity is zero.
2 A
NALYTICAL
F
ORMULATION
 
2.1 Pulse Propagation in Dispersive Fiber
 In a fiber optic communication system, information istransmitted over a fiber by using a coded sequence ofoptical pulses whose width is determined by the bit rate Bof the system. Dispersion-induced broadening of pulses isundesirable as it interferes with the detection process andleads to errors if the pulse spread outside its allocated bitslot (TB = 1/B). Clearly, dispersion limits the bit rate B fora fixed transmission distance L.There are several methods that are used to measure theperformance of an optical transmission system. But pulsebroadening factor is a direct performance measure of the
 ———————————————— 
 
 
Sher Shermin A. Khan is with the Department of Computer Science
and Engineering, Central Women’s University,
Dhaka 1203, Bangla-desh.
 
 Md. S. Islam is with the Institute of Information and CommunicationTechnology (IICT), Bangladesh University of Engineering and Tech-nology (BUET), Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
 
W
 
17
optical signal detection due to the optical fiber impair-ments.The optical pulse propagation in a single mode fibercan be described by nonlinear Schrödinger equation(NLSE). This equation includes the effect of fiber losses,chromatic dispersion and fiber nonlinearity
2 322 32 3
i A i A A i A A Az 2 2 t 6 t
 
(1)
 Where z is the longitudinal coordinate of the fiber, t isthe time in a framework moving at the group velocity, Ais the complex electrical field envelope,
β
2 is the secondorder dispersion,
β
3 is the third order dispersion,
α
is thepower absorption coefficient, and
γ
is the nonlinear coef-ficient.
2
2
eff  
n A
 
(2)
 g 
 z t v
(3)In order to access the effects of dispersion in the propaga-tion of pulse we can neglect the elect of attenuation con-stant and nonlinear coefficient so (1) can be written as
2 32 32 3
2 6
i A A i A z t
(4)
 Equation (4) can be solved by using the Fourier transformmethod if
,
 A
is the Fourier transform of
,
 A z
 such that
 
1, , exp2
 A z t A z i t

(5)Differentiating equation (5) with respect to
t
 
  
1, exp2
dA A z i i dt 
(6)
222
exp= ,2
i d A A dt 
 
(7)
333
exp,2
i i d A A dt 
 
(8)Differentiating equation (5) with respect to
z
 
1, exp2
dA A z i dz 
(9)Putting these values in equation (4) can be obtained
2 32 3
i 02 6
d A Adz 
 
(10)Solution of this equation is given by
   
2 32 3
, 0, exp2 6
 A z A iz 
(11)Substituting equation (11) in equation (5) can be obtained
2 32 3
1, 0, exp2 2 6
 A z t A iz i t

(12)Where
0,
 A
is the Fourier transform of the incidentfield at
z
= 0 and is obtained by
0, 0, exp
 A A t i t dt 

(13)Eq. (12) can be used to obtained analytical expression forthe output pulse; the RMS pulse width at a distance z isdefined as
1222
t z t
(14),where
22
,,
nn
t A z t d A z t dt 

(15)is the
n
th
moment.
2.2 Analytical Expression for Pulse BroadeningFactor
To evaluate the effects of β
2
 
and β
3
on pulse propagationby considering a Gaussian input pulse whose profile isdefined as
2020
0, exp2
 A t A
(16)Where,
 A
0
is the peak amplitude. The parameter
0
isthe half-width at 1/
e
intensity point and related to the fullwidth at half maximum (FWHM) of the pulse by the rela-tion
0
2 2ln2
 FWH
T
(17)the spectrum of the input pulse is obtained by using theFourier transform of
0,
 A
which is
0, 0, exp
 A A t i t dt 

(18)Substituting equation (16) in equation (18) can obtained
2020
0, exp exp2
 A A i t dt 

(19)By integrating equation (19) acquired
1/22 2 20 0 0
1,0 2 exp2
 A A T
 
(20)Substituting equation (20) in equation (12) obtained
1/22 2 2 2 32 30 0 0
1 1, 2 exp exp2 2 2 6
 A z t A T T i z

 
 
(21)By integrating equation (21) and solving can achieved
200
1, exp2
 A  A z Q z Q
(22),where
20 2 320
T iz Q
(23)
 © 2012 JICT
www.jict.co.uk
 
18
Equation (23) shows that a Gaussian pulse remains Gaus-sian during propagation but its width and amplitudechange by the factor
Q
(
z
).Equation (22) can be written as
0
, ,
 A A z t h z Q
(24), where
,
h z
is the output pulse shape at distance zand is defined as
20
1, exp
h z Q z
(25)Substituting equation (24) in (15)
2020
,,
nn
 At h z t dQ  Ah z t dQ

(26)
22
,,
nn
t h z t dh z t d

(27)
2*
, , ,
h z t h z t h z
(28), where
*
,
h z
is the complex conjugate of
,
h z
 
2 22024 20 2 3
, exp
t h z T
  
(29)
2222
,,
t h z t dh z t d

(30)Substituting (29) in (30)
22 22024 20 2 3222 2024 20 2 3
expexp
t t dt T t dt T

    
(31)
24 20 2 3220
2
T
  
(32)
22 2024 20 2 322 2024 20 2 3
expexp
t t dt T t dt T

    
(33)since
24 20 2 320
exp 02
T t dt 

  
(34)because it is an odd function of
t
.
22 2024 20 2 322 2024 20 2 3
exp0exp
t t dt T t dt T

    
(35)Substituting equations (32) and (35) in equation (14) andsquaring both sides
24 20 2 3220
2
T t
  
(36)The input root mean square (RMS) pulse width is definedas
00
2
(37)
2200
2
(38)
22 4 20 2 32 40 0
t z T t
(39)Pulse broadening factor which is the final to the initialRMS pulse width ratio is defined as
11222 4 220 2 32 40 0
ˆ
t z T t
(40)Equation (40) describes the pulse broadening factor in alinear dispersive fiber.
3 R
ESULTS AND
D
ISCUSSION
 
Pulse broadening effect for a Gaussian input pulse indispersive fiber considering the effect of chromaticdispersion has been demonstrated. For simulation,MATLAB software package is used. The set of parametersused to perform simulations are given in Table 1TABLE
 
1P
ARAMETERS
U
SED
F
OR
S
IMULATION
 
Parameters Settings
Refractive index of the fibercore1.46Fiber link length Varied
Second order dispersion β
2
10-30 ps
2
/km
Third order dispersion β
3
5 ps
3
/kmSpeed of light 3
10
8
m/secData rate 10-40 Gb/sFiber typeStandard single mode fi-ber

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