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Schizophrenia Case Study

Schizophrenia Case Study

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Published by aira23

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Published by: aira23 on Jul 14, 2009
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09/26/2014

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Schizophrenia Case Study 
INTRODUCTION:Schizophrenia
is an extremely complex mental disorder: in fact it is probably many illnessesmasquerading as one. A biochemical imbalance in the brain is believed to cause symptoms.Recent research reveals that schizophrenia may be a result of faulty neuronal development in thefetal brain, which develops into full-blown illness in late adolescence or early adulthood.Schizophrenia causes distorted and bizarre thoughts, perceptions, emotions, movement, and behavior. It cannot be defined as a single illness; rather thought as a syndrome or disease processwith many different varieties and symptoms. It is usually diagnosed in late adolescence or earlyadulthood. Rarely does it manifest in childhood. The peak incidence of onset is 15 to 25 years of age for men and 25 to 35 years of age for women.The
symptoms of schizophrenia
are categorized into two major categories,
the positive orhard symptoms
which include delusion, hallucinations, and grossly disorganized thinking,speech, and behavior, and
negative or soft symptoms
as flat affect, lack of volition, and socialwithdrawal or discomfort. Medication treatment can control the positive symptoms butfrequently the negative symptoms persist after positive symptoms have abated. The persistenceof these negative symptoms over time presents a major barrier to recovery and improved thefunctioning of client’s daily life.
TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA:
The diagnosis is made according to the client’s predominant symptoms:
Schizophrenia,
paranoid type
is characterized by persecutory (feeling victimized or spied on) or grandiose delusions,
hallucinations
, and occasionally, excessivelyreligiosity (delusional focus) or hostile and aggressive behavior.
Schizophrenia,
disorganized type
is characterized by grossly inappropriate or flat affect,incoherence, loose associations, and extremely disorganized behavior.
Schizophrenia,
catatonic type
is characterized by marked psychomotor disturbance,either motionless or excessive motor activity. Motor immobility may be manifested bycatalepsy (
waxy flexibility
) or stupor.
Schizophrenia,
undifferentiated type
is characterized by mixed schizophrenic symptoms(of other types) along with disturbances of thought, affect, and behavior.
Schizophrenia, residual type is characterized by at least one previous, though not acurrent, episode, social withdrawal, flat affect and looseness of associations.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY:Structure and function of the nervous systemI.
 
Structures
 
A.
 
The neurologic system consists of two main divisions, the central nervous system (CNS)and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The autonomic nervous system (ANS) iscomposed of both central and peripheral elements.1.
 
The
CNS
is composed of the brain and spinal cord.2.
 
The
PNS
is composed of the 12 pairs of the cranial nerves and the 31 pairs of the spinalnerves.3.
 
The
ANS
is comprised of visceral efferent (motor) and the visceral afferent (sensory)nuclei in
the brain and spinal cord
. Its peripheral division is made up of visceralefferent and afferent nerve fibers as well as autonomic and sensory ganglia.B.
 
The
brain
is covered by three membranes.1.
 
The
dura matter
is a fibrous,connective tissue structure containingseveral blood vessels.2.
 
The
arachnoid membrane
is a delicateserous membrane.3.
 
The
pia matter
is a vascular membrane.C.
 
The
spinal cord
extends from the medullaoblongata to the lower border of the first
lumbar vertebrae
. It contains millions of nerve fibers, and it consists of 31 nerves – 8cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, and 5 sacral.D.
 
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
forms in the lateral ventricles in the choroid plexus of the piamatter. It flows through the foramen of Monro into to the third ventricle, then through theaqueduct of Sylvius to the fourth ventricle. CSF exits the fourth ventricle by the foramenof Magendie and the two foramens of Luska. It then flows into the cistema magna, andfinally it circulates to the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord, bathing both the brainand the spinal cord. Fluid is absorbed by the arachnoid membrane.
II.
 
Function
 
A.
 
CNS
1.
 
Braina
 
The
cerebrum
is the center for consciousness, thought, memory, sensory input, andmotor activity; it consists of 
two hemispheres (left and right)
and four lobes,each with specific functions.
i
 
The
frontal lobe
controls voluntary muscle movements and contains motor areas, including the area for speech; it also contains the centers for personality, behavioral, autonomic and intellectual functions and those for emotional andcardiac responses.

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